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For most practicing Jews and Muslims there is little debate over circumcision - it is common practice for baby boys. But in Europe, circumcision faces some entrenched opposition. This summer, a court in Germany ruled that the practice is physical abuse. A Swiss hospital temporarily banned it. These moves have infuriated Jewish community leaders, but it's also drawn attention to a small but growing number of Jews in Israel who are choosing not to circumcise their children.
Daniel Estrin has that story from Jerusalem.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: (Singing in foreign language)
DANIEL ESTRIN, BYLINE: The whole thing took a matter of moments. The baby boy sat in his grandfather's lap, sucking on a cloth doused in sugar water. Grandpa looked the other way, while the ritual circumciser made a few quick snips to the baby's foreskin, then sang this blessing. The baby cried, and his father recited a blessing.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: (Foreign language spoken)
ESTRIN: Blessed are you God for this covenant made with our forefather, Abraham.
URI NATHAN: I'm actually feeling proud to do this to my son. To have him as part of my people.
ESTRIN: Uri Nathan isn't a religiously observant Jew. But he figured he was circumcised, his father was circumcised, why break a tradition his family has kept for generations? Most Israelis do it, even the most secular among them. These days, though, it's becoming more common to find expectant mothers who are rethinking the ritual, like Hila Petraikov.
HILA PETRAIKOV: You are cutting a helpless eight days old baby. There are risks involved. I mean, you are cutting a healthy tissue. I think that you should really think about it if you want to do it or not.
ESTRIN: In 1997, a few Israelis founded an advocacy group called the Organization Against Cutting Babies' Sex Organs. The name was just as provocative as the message. Just registering the group in the phonebook took some convincing, says anti-circumcision activist Ronit Tamir.
RONIT TAMIR: I wanted to put it in the Yellow Pages, so the agent taking the information from me, told me, what is it, who is cutting babies? Really, you are exaggerating.
ESTRIN: The group later changed its name to Whole Child. In 2000, Tamir helped found another group: the Forum for Parents of Intact Children. It was a kind of support network for parents who were still a little nervous about their decision to forego the custom.
TAMIR: We thought that one day, when the babies will be grown-ups or teenagers, they will experience social problems or maybe health problems that are related to the foreskin.
ESTRIN: But no one ever had any problems, Tamir says. She used to keep a list of parents whose kids were uncircumcised, but five years ago the numbers were getting so big she stopped counting. There are no official statistics, but Tamir estimates about 20,000 boys in Israel are uncircumcised. Still a small number.
But this summer a major Israeli newspaper ran a huge article about parents who have given up the rite. For one rabbi, it was a wake up call.
RABBI DAVID STAV: As a matter of fact, I met someone that told me that a lot of his friends, after reading that article, decided not to have circumcision to his son. As a result of that we understood that it's time to do something.
ESTRIN: Rabbi David Stav heads Tzohar, an organization that encourages secular Jewish Israelis to connect to religion. The group trained 12 ritual circumcisers to put a happier face on circumcision. They promised to charge just 200 bucks, cheaper than many. The group plans to spread the word in hospital delivery rooms.
STAV: These experts are going to come to the parents homes, to explain them what's going to happen. They will bring their tools, they will bring the instruments, and I guess they will try to reduce their hesitations.
ESTRIN: For the last decade, the American Academy of Pediatrics has said there's not enough scientific evidence to recommend the practice. But the group is about to update its position. The Washington Post reports that the pediatric association still won't recommend routine circumcisions, but it will say circumcision can prevent some diseases, and that it's beneficial to public health.
In Israel, if there's one thing that both sides of the debate are happy about it's that the ritual is no longer an automatic task, like buying a crib or changing a diaper. More parents in Israel today are actually taking a moment to think about it.
For NPR News, I'm Daniel Estrin in Jerusalem.