STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
The United States Army has awarded Michelle Dyarman a Purple Heart, the honor American troops receive for being wounded in action. Dyarman suffered the injury in a second, but receiving the Purple Heart took seven years. Back in 2010, we told you her story of suffering a concussion in Baghdad. Some commanders refused to give Purple Hearts to Dyarman and many other troops who got concussions because they did not think concussions were real injuries. As a result of our report, the Army put out new guidelines for Purple Hearts, and this past week, the Army told us they have finally awarded the medal to almost 1,000 soldiers under the new rules, including Dyarman. NPR's Daniel Zwerdling reports.
DANIEL ZWERDLING, BYLINE: Michelle Dyarman arrived at the American Legion one recent Sunday more than two hours before the ceremony was supposed to begin. Her local American Legion is in a drab brick building in Hanover, Pennsylvania. They've set up three long folding tables in the social hall. They were covered with red, white and blue plastic tablecloths. There were platters with cubes of salami and cheese and vegetable dip waiting in the corner. Dyarman was wearing makeup, lipstick. She kept wiping her eyes.
MICHELLE DYARMAN: It's a big day.
ZWERDLING: She'd set up poster boards on a side table with mementos from her Army career: her Army cap, her Army boots - they're tiny, like a kid's.
What's this picture with you with a whole bunch of Iraqi children?
DYARMAN: We were delivering shoes and school supplies, and toys, clothing, food.
ZWERDLING: Dyarman had been setting up meetings around Baghdad between Army commanders and Iraqi leaders. Back in late 2005, a roadside bomb exploded right beside her Humvee. A few months later, she was in a second explosion. The Army sent her to Walter Reed to treat her paralyzing headaches and muscle spasms and PTSD. But the Army commanders did not give the Purple Heart to Dyarman. In fact, our investigation with ProPublica showed that some Army commanders and even doctors belittled concussions, which are also called mild traumatic brain injuries. They shrugged them off as phony injuries. To the contrary: Army regulations have said for decades that a concussion is just as much an injury as bullet wounds or the effects of poison gas.
Are you back to normal now? Are you the old Michelle Dyarman?
DYARMAN: No. I can't remember things. I have trouble finding the right words. I can't remember.
ZWERDLING: But Dyarman says as long as the Army kept denying her Purple Heart, it was like telling her you're making it up. One of Dyarman's fellow officers back in Baghdad was Lieutenant Colonel Roger Peterson. He flew here from California on his own money because he wanted to be part of this day. He says Dyarman has changed a lot since Iraq.
LIEUTENANT COLONEL ROGER PETERSON: She used to be real cheery. She was right on the ball. She was very sharp, very intelligent person. Her memory and her focus, her energy has all changed. And this has all been since the blast.
INSKEEP: Peterson says he tried over and over and over again to get Dyarman the Purple Heart. He says he has a three-inch pile of applications and rejections. But then, the Army put out its new guidelines last year.
(SOUNDBITE OF RADIO BROADCAST)
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: This is Soldiers Radio News, from Washington.
ZWERDLING: They publicized the guidelines in newspapers and on Pentagon TV.
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UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: Retroactive to September 2001, soldiers who have suffered concussions or mild traumatic brain injury may qualify to receive the Purple Heart.
ZWERDLING: The guidelines are dry and technical. But they say to commanders, in effect: Listen up. If troops got diagnosed with a concussion from an enemy explosion, and they got treatment - even if that treatment was a pain pill - then they deserve the Purple Heart. A veteran's advocate helped Dyarman apply another time. This was her fifth time. And a couple months ago, Dyarman opened the mailbox at the family farm where she lives with her father. There was a big, yellow envelope from the Army. She figured, another rejection.
DYARMAN: So I actually didn't open it right away, and when I did open it, I was shocked.
ZWERDLING: Did you show it to you dad?
DYARMAN: As soon as he came home from work. He gave me a big hug, and we both cried.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: Ladies and gentlemen, it's a pleasure to be here today. And it's a great day for Major Dyarman.
ZWERDLING: The Army sent three representatives to Dyarman's ceremony from Carlisle Barracks in Pennsylvania. More than 30 of Dyarman's family and friends sat quietly at the folding tables.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: Attention to orders.
ZWERDLING: Dyarman stood up front, next to the American flag.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: The United States of America, to all who shall see these, presents greeting. This is to certify that the president of the United States of America has awarded the Purple Heart, established by General George Washington at Newburg, New York, August 7th, 1782, to Captain Michelle R. Dyarman.
ZWERDLING: I called the chief of the Army branch that bestows awards. His name is Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Perkins. He's down at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Perkins said since the Army put out the new guidelines last year, they've awarded almost 1,000 Purple Hearts to soldiers and veterans like Dyarman who suffered mild traumatic brain injuries. They've turned down only 31, and a few hundred more are still in the works.
LIEUTENANT COLONEL RALPH PERKINS: You know, the big message, I would say, it is that the Army, you know, we understand this is an injury. Commanders are more aware in cases where a concussion or a mild traumatic brain injury has occurred. Purple Hearts are being awarded based on that.
ZWERDLING: On the other hand, studies suggest that tens of thousands of troops got concussions in Iraq and Afghanistan, so it looks like only a fraction of them have applied for Purple Hearts under the new guidelines, and Perkins said he doesn't know why. Veterans advocates say maybe most of those soldiers never got an official diagnosis, or maybe they don't know about the new guidelines. Or maybe they know about the guidelines, but they don't have the will to go through the red tape. Perkins says just write or call his branch, and somebody will help you.
PERKINS: And we're going to do, you know, everything in our power to possibly issue in those potential cases.
ZWERDLING: So you're encouraging soldiers and vets who got concussions, hey, if you don't have a Purple Heart, apply now.
PERKINS: Yes. Yes, sir. I am encouraging that.
ZWERDLING: Back at the American Legion hall, Dyarman is still standing there next to the flag. People keep coming up and hugging her.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #3: You did a good job. Way to go.
DYARMAN: Thank you.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #3: We're so proud of you.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: We're very proud of you, dear.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #4: Congratulations, honey.
DYARMAN: Thank you.
ZWERDLING: Finally, Dyarman wants to go to the buffet table. Her guests have already started eating the chocolate cake. It's decorated, naturally, like a Purple Heart.
What does this mean, now that you finally have a Purple Heart?
DYARMAN: I was kind of left behind. And I think in our last interview, one of my comments was never leave a soldier behind. Somebody finally stepped up and picked me up and made things right. And for that, I'm very grateful.
ZWERDLING: Michelle Dyarman at her award ceremony on a recent Sunday in Hanover, Pennsylvania. Daniel Zwerdling, NPR News.