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One big story this election year is the debate over tax cuts. Mitt Romney says he favors keeping all of the Bush tax cuts, and then adding some more. To pay for these cuts, the candidate says he would reduce or eliminate some of the tax deductions.
Here's a closer look at Romney's plans from NPR's Jim Zarroli.
JIM ZARROLI, BYLINE: Governor Romney says he wants to sharply cut income tax rates, which would mean big tax cuts for higher-income people. But he says the cuts would be revenue-neutral, because he would also get rid of some of the deductions that fill the tax code.
Here he was on Fox Business News last week.
(SOUNDBITE OF FOX NEWS BROADCAST)
MITT ROMNEY: I'm looking instead to lower tax rates and limit deductions and exemptions in such a way that we have enterprises, small businesses able to keep more of their capital, and at the same time, simplify the code.
ZARROLI: Economists of all stripes say simplifying the tax code is a good idea. They say the tax code is filled with deductions that distort the economy. For instance, because people can write off mortgage interest on their taxes, they're encouraged to buy more expensive houses than they otherwise might. Glenn Hubbard is dean of the Columbia University Business School and a Romney adviser.
GLENN HUBBARD: What broadening the tax base does is get the tax code a little bit out of the business of picking, you know, which industries or sectors should get tax preferences, and more giving it back to individuals.
ZARROLI: Hubbard believes that simplifying the tax code and removing some of these distortions would be good for the economy in the long run. But doing so would be an enormous political challenge. For instance, the mortgage interest deduction has been used by some 75 million U.S. households, says Lawrence Yun, chief economist at the National Association of Realtors.
LAWRENCE YUN: In every tax reform process, the mortgage interest deduction is discussed. However, at the end of the day, the elected official clearly recognize that the mortgage interest deduction is very important for the economy, important for the middle class.
ZARROLI: Likewise, there are big deductions for charitable contributions and health insurance premiums, and any politician who tries to do away with them is likely to do battle with angry taxpayers, not to mention lobbyists. Governor Romney has so far avoided such a backlash by steadfastly refusing to say which deductions he wants to cut.
WILLIAM GALE: I mean, the underlying difficulty in analyzing all of this is he's not actually said how he would pay for all these cuts.
ZARROLI: William Gale of the Tax Policy Center co-authored a paper on Governor Romney's tax plan. He says you can't pay for Romney's tax cuts for high-earners just by eliminating deductions, unless you also raise taxes on the middle-class.
GALE: When you actually look at the available tax expenditures that can be reduced, there aren't enough of them in the upper-income categories to pay for the various tax cuts that high-income households get.
ZARROLI: The Romney campaign has criticized that report, saying it made some wrong assumptions about which deductions Governor Romney was willing to eliminate. In reality, says Glenn Hubbard, everything is on the table.
HUBBARD: What he's committed to do is working with the Congress to making sure that the tax plan is both revenue-neutral and fair - that is, distributionally neutral, and there's enough tax expenditures to do that. How you do it is something both he and the Congress would have to decide.
ZARROLI: Hubbard also says the Tax Policy Center report underestimates the powerful impact that broadening the tax base would have on growth. It's a variation on an argument that Republicans have long made about tax cuts, and it's much in dispute among economists. Still, there is widespread agreement that eliminating deductions would be a good idea. The challenge lies in winning over the many millions of Americans who now benefit from deductions and won't look kindly on efforts to change them. Jim Zarroli, NPR News, New York.
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