STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
For many Americans, this isn't campaign season, it's high school football season. It's an especially dangerous time of the season because of the summer heat. Five high school players died of heat stroke last year. Craig Lemoult of WSHU reports on the effort to prevent tragedy this year.
CRAIG LEMOULT, BYLINE: The effect of extreme heat on athletes is something that they study right here at the University of Connecticut at the Korey Stringer Institute. Korey Stringer was an NFL lineman who died in 2001 of heat stroke. I'm in an extremely hot room, it's about 96 degrees in here, and there's a treadmill, and Dave Hooper, who's a doctoral fellow here at the University of Connecticut, is on this treadmill. He's going to be here for about 30 minutes. Dave, how you feeling?
DAVID HOOPER: I'm - I'm hot and I'm thirsty.
LEMOULT: Doctoral fellow Evan Johnson is running the experiment on poor Dave, who's wearing shorts and a t-shirt.
EVAN JOHNSON: Right now I'm taking his internal body temperature, and more specifically his rectal temperature. And he's at 100.29 degrees right now.
LEMOULT: After a half-hour, another doctoral student, Brett Comstock, gets on the treadmill wearing a full football uniform. As he walks, the sweat is pouring off of him because the heavy uniform doesn't allow it to evaporate.
JOHNSON: Now we're going to see how his heart rate changes over the course of exercise, how his body temperature rises over the course of exercise, and then compare that to somebody just wearing shorts and a T-shirt.
LEMOULT: That comparison shows Brett, in the football uniform, increased his body temp a half of a degree more than Dave, in the T-shirt. Johnson says over the course of a three-hour football practice, that's significant.
JOHNSON: That's the difference between heat stroke and walking around fine.
LEMOULT: Really, just three degrees?
JOHNSON: Oh, absolutely - 101 versus 104 is a big difference.
LEMOULT: Thirteen-year-old Kendrick Fincher's body temperature was 108 degrees when he died in Arkansas in August 1995. His mom, Rhonda Fincher, says when Kendrick got home from football practice, he was staggering and slurring his words. Kendrick was taken to the hospital.
RHONDA FINCHER: You know, I remember them bringing him in and just thinking how, you know, when I left him he was strong and fine, you know? And it was very traumatic to think that a healthy 13-year-old child could go to football practice and the next time you see him you don't know if he's going to live or die.
LEMOULT: After her son's death, Rhonda Fincher started the Kendrick Fincher Hydration Foundation to educate schools, teams, players and parents about how to prevent heat illness.
MARCE PETROCCIO: This is important, very important.
LEMOULT: In the locker room at Staples High School in Westport, Connecticut, Coach Marce Petroccio talks to his team before the first practice of the year.
PETROCCIO: But if for any reason whatsoever you don't feel well, you're to let a position coach or myself know immediately. Okay, plenty of fluids, everybody understand that?
UNIDENTIFIED GROUP: Yes, Coach.
PETROCCIO: Okay, good.
(SOUNDBITE OF FOOTBALL PRACTICE)
LEMOULT: Out on the field, the players run drills in shorts, t-shirts and helmets, no pads. The state's school athletic conference has signed on to a set of guidelines to help players acclimate to heat. They were designed in 2009 by a task force made up of sports medicine experts, including people from the National Athletic Trainers Association. Douglas Casa is the head of the Korey Stringer Institute.
DOUGLAS CASA: It's just simply having a program in place that you're gradually increasing the stresses during football practices, and we know it really can protect these athletes.
LEMOULT: The guidelines require a certain number of days at the beginning of the practice season without full uniforms. They limit the number of two-a-day practices teams can have. They also recommend having an athletic trainer on site, something fewer than half of high schools do. Casa says at the college level and in the NFL, guidelines have been adopted to protect athletes from heat.
CASA: But at the high school level, it's a very different challenge, because you have to get all 50 states individually to approve safety guidelines.
LEMOULT: Right now, just nine states have fully adopted the task force guidelines. A national federation of state sports programs does make recommendations that a lot of states use. But those recommendations are far less specific about what coaches can and can't do in practice than the task force guidelines. Casa says if parents are worried that schools and coaches aren't doing enough to protect young athletes, it's up to them to raise the issue. For NPR News, I'm Craig Lemoult.