MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Melissa Block. Shoppers have long expected certain things from their local farmers' market - if they're lucky enough to have one - better food than the nearest store, for starters, grown locally. Price was once a secondary concern because vendors gravitated to wealthier neighborhoods. But now, more and more farmers' markets are popping up in lower income neighborhoods too. And as NPR's Dan Charles reports, vendors and shoppers alike are changing their expectations.
DAN CHARLES, BYLINE: Forty years ago, farmers' markets were rare in Washington, D.C. So when Jim Crawford decided to haul his organic vegetables from Pennsylvania to the city, he had his pick of neighborhoods. He settled on one of the wealthier ones on the northwest side of the city. Around here, the median household income is $170,000 a year, and Crawford says that does help.
JIM CRAWFORD: It isn't cut-and-dried that this is only for high-income neighborhoods. It definitely isn't. On the other hand, you have to have people who can afford to maybe pay a bit more than the lowest prices in the supermarket because we can't grow stuff and sell it for those kinds of prices.
CHARLES: Crawford raised his tomato prices today because blight is cutting into his supply. He bumped the red organic ones up to $3.20 a pound. The scarcer heirlooms are 4.20 a pound and, still, they sell. Despite the competition, there are regular grocery stores just a few blocks away.
ISABEL: I don't pay attention to prices, which I know is really bad.
CHARLES: This is Isabel, a loyal customer. What she cares about is taste.
ISABEL: Some things just taste better. And when you bring them to relatives, they would go, where did you get those tomatoes?
CHARLES: The appetite for this kind of produce is spreading. Two miles southeast of here, you come to the neighborhood of Columbia Heights. It's the heart of the city. There were riots and fires here in 1968 after Martin Luther King Jr. was killed. But over the past few years, Columbia Heights has gone from troubled to trendy. On the corner where stores burned 44 years ago, there's now a plaza where kids run through fountains and where farmers sell produce on Saturday mornings, farmers like Matt Harsh.
MATT HARSH: My philosophy is you need two things for a good farmers' market: pent-up demand and lots of disposable income. And with all the young people moving into this community, you've got that disposable income starting to come up, and you've got tons of pent-up demand. There's just no place to get stuff.
CHARLES: But there aren't just young people with money here. About a third of the produce that Matt Harsh sells is paid for with money from programs that provide food assistance to low-income families, programs that go by acronyms: SNAP and WIC. One key to the success of this market is making it possible for families to use those benefits. Amy Sahalu grew up in Ethiopia, and she comes here partly because it feels a little bit like open-air markets back home. There's only one drawback.
AMY SAHALU: It's a little bit expensive here.
CHARLES: But you still like it?
SAHALU: Yeah. I still like it. Yeah. It tastes good for me.
CHARLES: This market has turned into a kind of low-key celebration of diverse urban community and country food. A lot of people would love to see the same thing happen in places that aren't quite so up-and-coming. So the new farmers' market frontier is in places like Shipley Terrace on the southeastern edge of Washington, D.C. According to the Census Bureau, the median household income in this neighborhood is $27,000 a year. Two-thirds of the families don't have fathers living with them, yet there's a farmers' market, the Ward 8 Farmers Market.
And in some ways, it's just like the ones across town. The customers here, like Steve Hair and Carlos Graham, are looking for the same thing.
STEVE HAIR: Fresher produce, locally grown.
CARLOS GRAHAM: So you know where your food is coming from, and I like that.
CHARLES: But there are also ways in which life is different out here on the farmers' market frontier. The making money part is tougher. James Smith sells fresh vegetables here. He says there are only enough customers to support one stand like this.
JAMES SMITH: When you've got two or three people selling the same product, then everybody lose money. Nobody makes money. I drive 80 miles to get here. And if you come here and don't make no money at all, why be here?
CHARLES: But even James Smith says it's more than just a business.
SMITH: I'm here for the people. I like the money, but I'm here for the people more than it's the money. People will give you 5 bonus dollars.
CHARLES: Markets like this usually have volunteers and nonprofits behind them, and they have goals that go way beyond making money. When John Gloster helped set up the Ward 8 Farmers Market, there was no real grocery store anywhere for miles around.
JOHN GLOSTER: We've done a great job of making foods that people perceived previously as outside of their budget available.
CHARLES: And at other frontier markets, the healthy produce is mainly a way to build a community. Across the river in Virginia, the Four Mile Run Farmers and Artisans Market sits beside a park in a strip of suburbia that was neglected for a long time.
KEVIN BEEKMAN: The park was a place that nobody wanted to go.
CHARLES: Kevin Beekman helped get this market off the ground. On Sunday mornings, there's food and usually some music. Beekman says the vendors here are doing OK, not great. But in other ways, the market has been an amazing success. He used to fill a garbage bag with trash every weekend.
BEEKMAN: Now, nobody even bothers to litter. I mean, it's so much more of a pleasure just to be in the neighborhood. The folks in the rental units, the high-rise across the street will come down and say I'm just happy. I don't know what this is all about. They're coming out to see what it's about, but they're saying I'm happy that something like this is in my neighborhood.
CHARLES: Are they shopping here, I ask. Beekman pauses for just a moment. They're starting to, he says. Dan Charles, NPR News.