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In Afghanistan, recent attacks by Afghan forces on American and NATO troops have forced the U.S. military to suspend training for new Afghan recruits. U.S. Special Forces says it is using the time to double-check their backgrounds for ties to the insurgency. This comes as thousands of American troops are leaving Afghanistan, as the NATO-led coalition begins its final two years there. Many welcome the rapid exodus of Western forces, but others are rattled, especially in the volatile southern part of the country.

NPR's Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson, recently returned from the southern province of Kandahar. She filed this report.

(SOUNDBITE OF A CONVERSATION)

SORAYA SARHADDI NELSON, BYLINE: Several American service members are observing this meeting of local and provincial leaders in the Panjwai District, west of Kandahar City.

(SOUNDBITE OF A CONVERSATION)

NELSON: With the help of a translator, they listen to the Afghans discuss a shortage of school buildings and Taliban attacks that destroyed a major road here. In past years, Western troops actively engaged with local tribal elders at such gatherings. On this day, the Americans do not address the crowd.

Kandahar Governor Tooriyalai Wesa welcomes the change. He says it's high time that Afghans take the lead not only in governance but in security.

GOVERNOR TOORIYALAI WESA: Our wish, you know, is even to happen that before 2014. So hopefully by then, the Afghan security forces are on their own feet. They will be hopefully in the position to defend the entire country. And that's their job.

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NELSON: Back in Kandahar city, that's already happening. U.S. forces rarely patrol here these days, leaving law and order in the hands of the Afghan police.

MOHAMMED ALI: (Foreign language spoken)

NELSON: It's something many residents, like baker Mohammed Ali, believe has contributed to improved security within the city. They say that with fewer foreigners for the Taliban to target, Afghans are safer.

MAYOR MOHAMMED OMAR: (Foreign language spoken)

NELSON: Kandahar Mayor Mohammed Omar says the rush to put Afghans in the lead has benefitted local governance, as well. He explains that after years of having no budget, this year foreign donors gave the city $23 million that he in part used to establish a sanitation department.

OMAR: But big project, like water dam, like electricity, we need. The American promise to Afghan people that we continue our help, our support after 2014.

(SOUNDBITE OF CHILDREN)

NELSON: At a nearby school, Principal Ehsanullah Ehsan is far more wary of the ongoing drawdown, which he fears will backfire.

EHSANULLAH EHSAN: We are scared what will happen if the international community withdraw, because the successes, the development that have come have not been solidified. You know, there are still warlords. There are still drug lords. There are still extremists. There are still Taliban.

NELSON: He fears that projects like his co-ed school, which is funded with Canadian and U.S. aid, may suffer once the troops leave. Ehsan predicts that without the NATO-led coalition here, foreign attention to Afghanistan will wane despite billions of dollars pledged by various countries, for development and other assistance. He also worries that Afghan security forces won't be able to stop the country from slipping into civil war, as happened after Soviet troops left Afghanistan in 1989.

EHSAN NOORZAI: (Foreign language spoken)

NELSON: Across town, provincial council chief Ehsan Noorzai also predicts chaos and anarchy once the Americans leave, with the country's many strongmen jockeying for power.

NOORZAI: (Foreign language spoken)

NELSON: Nevertheless, Noorzai says, for him, Western forces can't leave soon enough given their failure to restore peace here over the past decade.

Soraya Sarhaddi Nelson, NPR News.

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