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MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Melissa Block.

In Northern Syria today, Air Force jets bombed the rebel held town of Al-Bab. According to Syrian activists, at least 18 people were killed. Over the summer, the rebels gained control of a number of towns and villages along the Syrian-Turkish border. Now, those places are being attacked from the air and on the ground by government forces.

NPR's Deborah Amos travelled to northern Syria's Aleppo province and has the story of one town in the government's crosshairs, Azaz.

DEBORAH AMOS, BYLINE: I'm standing in the cemetery in Azaz. In the old section, the tombstones are in neat rows. In the new section, the graves are fresh, the tombstones are pieces of stone, the names are handwritten. Death is a daily event now. A dozen new graves have been dug in anticipation of more funerals. Two men move stones into place.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Build the wall for cemetery.

AMOS: So it's expanding?

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Yes.

AMOS: Just a month ago, Azaz was celebrating after lightly armed rebels drove out troops loyal to President Bashar al-Assad. Abu Ibrahim, a school administrator, says he rushed back when he heard Azaz had been liberated.

ABU IBRAHIM: (Through translator) We were very happy, maybe we didn't celebrate properly because also financially, it's difficult to celebrate now, but we were very, very happy.

AMOS: Now, Azaz lives with nightly shelling. Army troops still control a military airport eight miles down the road and regularly fire artillery shells into the heart of the city. This was a bomb that came through the wall of your house?

IBRAHIM: (Through translator) A rocket from the military airport.

AMOS: Abu Ibrahim's panicked family packed up and left.

IBRAHIM: (Through translator) My mother was here and I took her away because this area is being targeted and I told her, don't come back here anymore because it's dangerous.

AMOS: Over the past month, many have fled, reducing a town of 70,000 to a ghost town of 10,000 people. Abu Ibrahim says the town has gone back 50 years. Electricity is off, the phones are down, and the Internet has stopped working. Most streets bear the scars of the shelling. The biggest exodus came on August 14th, when the Syrian air force dropped two bombs in a residential district here, killing more than 60 people.

Whole walls sheared off, shoes still in the rubble, blankets, a broken iron, a stove that sits in the middle of a living room.

The bomb site remains as it was the day of the explosion, when people frantically dug survivors out of flattened houses. Um Fuad, a young mother with three children, was injured on the day of the airstrikes. She moved in with her parents, a large house with a basement, for protection. Her sons say they are not afraid, but her daughter, Leen, doesn't like those planes.

LEEN: (Through translator) I'm six years old and I'm afraid, both from artillery fire and when I hear the airplanes.

AMOS: Can you tell the difference?

LEEN: (Through translator) The artillery just hits, but the plane makes ooh.

AMOS: At the city hospital, Dr. Ammar, the only doctor still working in Azaz, says he's seen 50 cases of traumatized children.

DR. AMMAR: (Through translator) Many parents come to me and say: Doctor, I don't know what's happening. She just became pale and lost conscious, or that a child is not eating. It's fear, anxiety, cases of emotional trauma with kids.

AMOS: Dr. Ammar and his assistant, Enis, have stayed in Azaz to treat wounded rebels and civilians. The other doctors have all fled to Turkey. Enis has videos on his phone of the large protests staged in Azaz when government forces finally fled. He chanted with the crowd that day and repeats his performance for a visitor.

AMMAR: (Singing in foreign language)

AMOS: The free one will not die, death is better than a bitter life, he sings. Azaz has paid a high price, and no one here believes that they are really free yet. Dr. Ammar is the bitter one. Without any international help, there will be another exodus of refugees soon, he says, joining the thousands that have already fled to Turkey.

Deborah Amos, NPR News.

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