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Russia's economy may be growing, but many Russians who have a choice would rather make money somewhere else. Well-educated Russians in particular continue leaving to work abroad. Critics of President Vladimir Putin blame the exodus on corruption and government repression. NPR's Corey Flintoff reports from Moscow.

COREY FLINTOFF, BYLINE: Just last month, the world of science lit up like a supernova when a billionaire Internet investor named Yuri Milner announced nine prizes for some of the world's most innovative thinkers in physics. Each of the Fundamental Physics awards came with a cash prize $3 million. Like Milner, three of the nine prizewinners were Russian-born. Like Milner, all three currently live and work outside Russia. Writer Yulia Latynina says the scientists are just the latest and most visible sign of a growing phenomenon: talented Russians who chose not to remain in their home country.

YULIA LATYNINA: When I come to the United States, I see a tremendous number of Russians who have left. They may be physicists. They may be physicians. They may be genius. The majority of them just left because they don't want to live in a country to which the decent rules don't apply.

FLINTOFF: Latynina is not a part of the Russian diaspora herself. She's a novelist and host of a political talk show on Echo of Moscow radio. She says it's not just billionaires and academic superstars who are leaving, but middle-class people who should be part of the backbone of Russian business and civic life. Latynina cites estimates that some two million people have left Russia during the 13 years that Putin has been in power.

LATYNINA: But Vadim Radaev, an economic sociologist at Moscow's Higher School of Economics, says it's hard to measure whether there's a middle-class exodus now. Recent polling, he says, shows that about 10 or 11 percent of Russians say they'd be willing to leave the country to work or study. That, he says, is roughly the same as in the United States or East Asia, and less than in Europe. The number, though, is higher among Russia's well-educated young people.

VADIM RADAEV: In this group, the number of those who are thinking about emigration is high. It's about one-quarter.

FLINTOFF: What puzzles Radaev is that there's been an apparent surge in people talking about leaving, despite the fact that life can be good in Russia, especially for graduates of prestigious universities like his. He says most are managers who make good money.

RADAEV: Everything is good, but at the same time, many of them talk persistently about their willingness to live elsewhere.

FLINTOFF: Radaev himself says he chose long ago not to leave, even though like many of his colleagues, he received offers of scholarships to study abroad.

RADAEV: And I decided to stay here in this country and doing things in this country. And I'm not going to leave, and I will not.

FLINTOFF: Now, he says, his university is actively recruiting promising scholars from abroad, and of the handful hired each year, about half are returning Russian expatriates. For Russians with experience working aboard, the decision to return or leave can be complicated, as it is with this couple, Sergei and Masha. Both work in Russia for international employers, and they asked that their last names not be used so that their employers won't be identified or involved in the story. Each of them has worked outside the country before, Masha for four years and Sergei for nearly 20. But when Masha is asked where she'd like to settle permanently...

MASHA: I would say it would be Russia, but with a little bit different political system.

FLINTOFF: As it is, she and Sergei are strongly considering leaving again, despite the fact that they have aging parents living in Russia.

SERGEI: Unfortunately, we don't see, you know, a bright future for this country until the political system changes.

FLINTOFF: The couple say they also have to consider the needs of their high-school-age son. Neither of them is optimistic that Russia's political situation will change anytime soon.

MASHA: I hope that this will happen at some point in future, but probably not during my life.

FLINTOFF: The couple say they will likely settle in the United States, where both have worked in the past. Corey Flintoff, NPR News, Moscow.

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