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Even as the U.S. reduces troop levels in Afghanistan, the Army has been ramping up instruction in that country's languages. This year, some U.S. Army bases have added several hundred soldiers trained in Pashto and Dari. Blake Farmer of member station WPLN has the story from Fort Campbell, Kentucky.

BLAKE FARMER, BYLINE: It's more than the language that's foreign to soldiers, so is Afghanistan's culture.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG)

FARMER: Smiling men in long shirts and baggy pants follow the leader on a small stage, spinning in circles. It's an ancient attan dance, and important for soldiers to see, says Ahmad Dauodzai. In modern renditions, occasionally, rocket launchers are fired into the air, but he says soldiers need not be afraid.

AHMAD DAUODZAI: It's not a sign of war or hatred. You know, it's a sign of love, reconciliation.

FARMER: Dauodzai and dozens of other Afghan natives have been hired as trainers in this immersion program, replicated at Fort Carson, Colorado, and Fort Drum, New York. The first few weeks are spent in a book, learning the more than 40 letters in Pashto, one of two official languages in Afghanistan.

PRIVATE 1ST CLASS TIMOTHY GRIFFIN: (Foreign language spoken)

FARMER: U.S. Army Private 1st Class Timothy Griffin has advanced beyond the basics and is now studying how to connect. The cadence of conversation sounds a lot like the American South.

GRIFFIN: You're constantly asking them how they're doing, how their family is doing, how their neighbors are doing, just anything, how's your car. Ten minutes later, then you get to the main point, which is, like, 30 seconds long. That's the conversation.

FARMER: Such cultural immersion was largely left to the Army's elite Special Forces who shouldered the task of training indigenous forces. But in Afghanistan, that's become the job of 19-year-old privates too. And the U.S. exit strategy calls for the mission to become even more about training the Afghan troops. So in 2010, the military's top brass issued a directive that at least one American per platoon should be able to go beyond hello and thank you. The 101st Airborne Division's commander hit the books too. Major General James McConville has been learning the language of Afghan government, Dari.

MAJOR GENERAL JAMES MCCONVILLE: This will be my second time going back to Afghanistan. You start to realize, I would have been much more effective if I understood the language and I understood the culture, and maybe some of the things that may offend them that may lead to some situations that are not in the best interest of either of our forces.

FARMER: A dozen U.S. troops were killed in August by forces dressed in Afghan uniform. The Pentagon believes the bloodshed is often a result of personal grievances and what it calls social difficulties. Language training is hardly a direct response to the killings, but McConville acknowledges it may help. Private 1st Class Maxwell Murphy says spending so much time with his Afghan instructors is at least a start.

PRIVATE 1ST CLASS MAXWELL MURPHY: I'm sure that a lot of my comrades don't believe that they can trust them. I mean, I don't totally believe that I can trust them all the time too.

FARMER: Once deployed, if a uniformed Afghan does go rogue, Murphy figures he'll be tipped off before anyone else. He says U.S. soldiers aren't expected to know the language.

MURPHY: You might pick up them saying things that they don't think that you'll know. So hopefully, maybe, we'll be able to catch some stuff before something happens.

FARMER: Whether an insider attack or outside threat, military commanders are hoping soldiers like Murphy find a way to occasionally use their words instead of their weapons. For NPR News, I'm Blake Farmer in Nashville.

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