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Now that the political conventions are over, the campaigns are immersed in get-out-the-vote efforts. But in many states, voting laws are still up in the air. That includes Pennsylvania, where this week the state Supreme Court will hear arguments on its new voter ID law. And in Ohio and Texas, voting laws are also making their way through the courts.
And then there's South Carolina. A federal court is still considering whether South Carolina can go ahead with its new voter ID law. We have more on that case and the questions it raises from NPR's Pam Fessler.
PAM FESSLER, BYLINE: At the Republican National Convention, South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley got some of her biggest applause with this.
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GOVERNOR NIKKI HALEY: We said in South Carolina that if you have to show a picture ID to buy Sudafed, if you have to show a picture ID to set foot on an airplane, then you should have to show picture ID to protect one of the most valuable, most central, sacred rights - and bless it America - the right to vote.
FESSLER: But even as the crowd cheered, a three-judge panel in Washington, D.C., was considering whether the law should even go into effect or whether it would discriminate against minorities and violate the Voting Rights Act. The court heard from lawmakers who wrote the law, from election officials who have to implement it and from voters.
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DELORES FREELON: I'm having a problem with trying to continue with my voting only because my birth certificate does not have my name on it.
FESSLER: One of them was Delores Freelon, who, in this YouTube video, tells the story she essentially told the court. Her birth certificate from 60 years ago only bears one name - her maiden surname Jones. She said it never was a problem until she tried to get a photo ID in South Carolina. Her expired Louisiana driver's license, her Social Security card and other non-photo ID didn't help even though they did get her on the plane to Washington.
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FREELON: I also have a state medical card with my name, birthday and everything, but South Carolina will not recognize this.
FESSLER: The state's response, though, showed just how confusing voting laws can be. The state's top election official testified that the new law would allow people without photo ID to vote if they sign an affidavit affirming that they have a reasonable impediment to getting an ID. But exactly what that means - and who decides - changed throughout the trial, leaving the judges seemingly exasperated. Doug Chapin is an election expert at the University of Minnesota.
DOUG CHAPIN: Anytime you're introducing anything new at the polling place on Election Day, you have to keep in mind how intensely human the process of elections and voting is.
FESSLER: Chapin says this case shows just how much election law is open to interpretation. What one voter encounters at the polls might be quite different from what another one encounters, even at the next table.
CHAPIN: Even if the voter knows what ID to produce, different poll workers may not accept it based on their own understanding of the voter ID rules.
FESSLER: And in South Carolina, there are some 20,000 poll workers. The state also has a divisive racial history when it comes to voting. That's one of the reasons the federal court has been asked to clear the new law. Concerns were raised in court whether that might influence the way the law is administered.
DR. SCOTT HUFFMON: Race permeates all political aspects in South Carolina, much to everybody's annoyance and chagrin.
FESSLER: Scott Huffmon is a political scientist at Winthrop University in Rock Hill, South Carolina. He says the introduction in court of an email exchange between a resident and one of the law's key sponsors, State Representative Alan Clemmons, has only added fuel to the fire.
The resident told Clemmons that he didn't believe that poor blacks and the elderly couldn't get photo ID, and that if they were offered $100 to show one, they'd be, quote, "like a swarm of bees going after a watermelon," to which Clemmons responded: Amen. Thank you for your support of voter ID.
HUFFMON: And so that led people to believe that, whether it was openly spoken of or not, there was a racial dimension to this and that the law was being passed with ulterior motives.
FESSLER: Clemmons said in court that his email response was poorly considered. He and other state lawmakers testified that their intention was to prevent voter fraud, although that's not been a problem in the state. They denied they were trying to suppress the votes of black residents, who are less likely to have the required ID. They said that's one reason they put the reasonable impediment provision in the law. Now it's up to the court to decide whether that will be enough. Pam Fessler, NPR News, Washington.