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MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

We end this hour in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Virunga National Park. Africa's oldest park is home to 200 endangered mountain gorillas, about a quarter of the world's total. At last count, nine different armed groups also live in and around the protected area. And a new insurgent group has taken over gorilla habitat in Virunga. NPR's John Burnett recently returned from the region and sent this reporter's notebook.

JOHN BURNETT, BYLINE: When crossing from Uganda to Congo at the shabby border town of Bunagana, a traveler encounters a broadly smiling man in a black leather jacket named Hamid Kashaisha.

HAMID KASHAISHA: You want to go and see the gorillas?

BURNETT: We told Hamid that we wanted to go see guerillas with guns, that is the M23 rebels who, for the last two months, have occupied a piece of real estate in eastern Congo larger than Delaware. But that did not deter the pitchman.

KASHAISHA: Right now, we are charging 350, visa inclusive, and then transportation both ways 150. And now, we are operating for Virunga National Park. And the gorillas are now active, and they are happy when they are visited by people from all around the world.

BURNETT: Hamid splits the fee with the gun-slinging insurgents. Gorilla trekking is the latest sideline for M23, in addition to their rackets: taxing truckers and charcoal makers. We heard that some adventure tourists are actually paying the $500 to go see the apes in the densely forested slopes controlled by the mutineers. After all, neighboring Rwanda charges $750 to see its mountain gorillas. The business development director at Virunga National Park, Tjeenk Willink, reached by phone, says the guerrilla-gorilla guide that we encountered is a fraud. He's untrained, the safety of his clients cannot be guaranteed and the park receives none of the money he collects.

In fact, Virunga has been closed for the past four months because of combat between M23 and Congolese troops in and around the park. Virunga National Park has six gorilla families that are habituated to humans. This is a recording of the sound they make.

(SOUNDBITE OF GORILLA GROWLING)

BURNETT: In late July, government and rebel forces agreed to a cease-fire to allow rangers and trackers from the Bukima patrol post to go in search of gorillas they had not seen for more than three months. Four gorilla families were found and reported to be healthy. One ranger described the encounter: The gorillas circled us and several reached out to touch and smell us. They had not seen us for a very long time, and they seemed calm and curious.

Rangers have yet to receive permission from M23 to search the area where the remaining two families hang out, to count them and remove snares. This is not the first time armed conflict has spilled over into Virunga National Park. In 2007 and 2008, rebels took over the park headquarters. Artillery and machine gun fire killed nine mountain gorillas. The park reports more than 130 of its rangers have been killed in the last 15 years.

Despite it all, a census taken in 2010 reveals the number of mountain gorillas living in the adjoining tri-national volcano parks of Congo, Uganda and Rwanda has increased 26 percent since 2003. Under the circumstances, this gorilla army is doing remarkably well. John Burnett, NPR News, Nairobi.

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