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Spain is slashing spending, trying to avoid a European bailout. One of the biggest victims of those budget cuts is public education. So, schools across Spain reopened this week with bigger classes, fewer teachers and increased fees for things like lunches and books.
Lauren Frayer reports from Madrid on how some families are coping.
LAUREN FRAYER, BYLINE: Conchi Redondo blows kisses at her three daughters after dropping them off on the first day of school. She smiles and waves at the girls, but privately, she's worried.
CONCHI REDONDO: (Through translator) It'll be different for them this year, for sure. They've cut the number of teachers and increased the number of kids in each class. When I was young, Spain was a much poorer country, and I remember we had 40 kids in a class. And now I fear we're returning to that because of this economy.
FRAYER: The past few months have seen the biggest cuts to public education in Spain's democratic history. All told, funding for schools will be cut 20 percent by 2015. For the first time in 14 years, the number of teachers is down through layoffs and attrition, even as student enrollment rises. With three kids in the school system, Redondo used to qualify for a discount on school lunch, but that subsidy has been cut this year.
REDONDO: (Through translator) At my daughters' school, for one student, it costs 125 euros a month for school lunch, 125 euros. And for the books, I spent 600 euros for all three of them.
FRAYER: That's about $480 a month for three kids' school lunches, plus about $770 for their books for the year. With a quarter of Spanish adults unemployed, a growing number of families simply can't afford that. Redondo's daughters could bring bag lunches to school but under a new policy, they'll have to pay a fee to eat in the cafeteria even if they've brought food from home.
Pablo Aznar is an elementary school teacher in Madrid who's had to break the news of higher fees to his students' parents, many of whom have lost their jobs in the past year.
PABLO AZNAR: It's like a ball in my throat. It's a tragedy, because you see the drama in the families.
FRAYER: A special ed teacher used to come to Aznar's class to help three of his students who have learning disabilities. But that position was eliminated this year, so the kids will have to go without extra help.
AZNAR: We try to do our best, but there will be a point where, if we don't have more resources, our job is going to be difficult. Can you imagine spending one year, every day, from 9 to 6, with 30 kids? And that's what's happening.
FRAYER: One of Aznar's colleagues is a gym teacher has been reassigned to teach social studies and a French teacher is teaching physics. All of them have lost 7 percent of their salaries this year on top of a 5 percent pay cut last year. Teachers are planning a strike for later this month. Aznar blames political elites who he says don't understand the impact of budget cuts on middle class families.
AZNAR: When you are playing golf and paying like 200 euros for a cup of wine in a restaurant, you are not thinking that a family cannot pay 35 euros for the pencils. It's like they are apart from reality.
FRAYER: Economist Javier Diaz-Gimenez, at IESE Business School, says it's been easier for Spain's ruling conservatives to cut spending on things like health and education, rather than raise corporate taxes - both out of cronyism, but also out of fear that the jobless rate, already Europe's highest, will rise even more.
JAVIER DIAZ-GIMENEZ: It's the politicians. It's, you know, the political organizations need all these corporations, all these enterprises, to employ their people. So then you start doing the across the board things, which hit everybody, because you are not willing to hit the surplus stuff.
FRAYER: Outside a middle school in downtown Madrid, 13-year-old Alvaro Laje and his friends returned from summer vacation to find a parking garage being built on school property.
ALVARO LAJE: (Spanish spoken)
FRAYER: It's the yard where we used to play soccer and basketball, he says. And now they want to make extra money by charging for parking there. So we'll have to stay inside during our 30-minute recess. This is how the crisis affects our quality of life.
Union leaders forecast more unhappy surprises throughout Spain's school year. For NPR News, I'm Lauren Frayer in Madrid.