RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
On this morning 150 years ago, Union and Confederate troops clashed at Sharpsburg, Maryland.
STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
What would later be known as the Battle of Antietam would turn out to be the bloodiest single day in American history: 23,000 men were killed or wounded in the fields, woods and roads around Sharpsburg.
MONTAGNE: NPR's Tom Bowman takes us on a tour of Antietam battlefield, and tells us how that one day changed the course of the Civil War.
TOM BOWMAN, BYLINE: It is called, simply, the cornfield. And it was right here, in the first light of dawn, that Union troops - more than 1,000 - crept toward the Confederate lines. The stalks were at head level, and shielded their movements.
(SOUNDBITE OF CANNON FIRING)
BOWMAN: Cannon fire opened the battle, puffs of white smoke rising from the tree line at the precise spot where men re-enacting the battle are firing artillery today. Just 200 yards in front of the Union forces, Confederate troops from Georgia were flat on their stomachs. They leveled their guns, and waited. When the Union troops broke out of the corn, the Georgians all rose up and fired.
KEITH SNYDER: The smoke, the noise, the artillery is crashing in from four directions. The bullets are hissing, zipping, popping. People are screaming and yelling. It's just a concentrated terror.
BOWMAN: Keith Snyder is a park ranger at Antietam.
SNYDER: Right where we're standing, it's complete chaos; bedlam, screaming, yelling, bodies everywhere. In four hours, 10,000 soldiers are killed and wounded.
BOWMAN: One of the men who survived the cornfield was Cpl. Lewis Reed, of the 12th Massachusetts Regiment. He wrote about that day in a letter, years later. He remembered all the men around him, screaming for help.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: (Reading) I found myself on the ground, with a strange feeling covering my body. My shirt and blouse filled with blood, and I supposed it was my last day on Earth. I had the usual feelings of home and friends, and thousands of thoughts ran through my mind at once.
BOWMAN: Cpl. Reed managed to stagger to the cover of nearby woods. He would live to the age of 83. His fellow soldiers - two of every three men in his unit - would be dead or wounded by nightfall. There was nothing special about these fields, or even this town. It had no strategic value. Gen. Robert E. Lee's plan was to push his troops north, perhaps to Pennsylvania; fight a decisive battle; and pressure Northern politicians to sue for peace. Union troops marched from Washington, and intercepted Lee.
SNYDER: The thing about Antietam is, it's a very personal battle. The vast majority of the combat here is done at very close range - a hundred yards and closer. It's savage, personal. When you pop out, the enemy's right there.
BOWMAN: By late morning, the fight in the cornfield was a stalemate. The Union shifted its attack.
SNYDER: They actually turned south, and head towards the sunken road.
BOWMAN: The sunken road - it's a few hundred yards long; and about 5 feet or so, below ground level. The Confederates - more than 2,000 - were hunkered down, waiting for the Union troops.
SNYDER: It's just an old country farm, land that had been worn down from years of wagon traffic and erosion.
BOWMAN: It's almost like a ditch here.
SNYDER: For the Southerners in this area, it was a ready-made fort.
BOWMAN: The Confederates peered over the top, and watched the Northern troops coming across an open field. Keith Snyder, the park ranger, described what they saw.
SNYDER: The first thing you're going to see is the eagle of a flagstaff, rising up; then the Union colors slowly coming into view; the blue hats, the curious eyes, the terrified face, the chest, the stomachs. And when that crest is filled with the entire line of Union men, every Confederate officer in the lane almost simultaneously screamed, at the top of their lungs: Fire! And it's like a massive bolt of lightning - flame and lead, out across the field; takes out almost every soldier in the front rank.
BOWMAN: One Union general saw his troops disappear into the sunken road, and was heard to say, "God save my poor boys." But after terrible losses, the Union troops were able to encircle the Confederates. The sunken road became a death trap for the men inside; men like Sgt. James Shinn, of the 4th North Carolina Regiment. He watched hundreds of his fellow soldiers flee to the rear. He later scratched this entry in his diary.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: (Reading) The Minie balls, shot and shell rained upon us from every direction except the rear. Many men took this chance to leave the field entirely. Many officers were killed and wounded - and, I am sorry and ashamed to say, left the field unhurt.
SNYDER: You have almost 2,000 Confederate dead and wounded, that have piled up in this road. When the Union men got into this, they tried to advance. And as one man said, "we made our stand on the ghastly flooring."
BOWMAN: The sunken road would forever be known as Bloody Lane. It was a turning point in the battle.
SNYDER: Once this thing collapses, the center of Lee's entire army has been broken wide open. It is absolute desperation.
(SOUNDBITE OF FLOWING CREEK)
BOWMAN: The battle shifted to the third and final phase, next to the waters of Antietam Creek. Nearby, a stone bridge crosses the creek. And on the other side, there's a steep bluff; a hundred feet, straight up. Confederate soldiers were dug in. They had a perfect shot at any advancing troops below.
SNYDER: It's a fortress. The Union 9th Corps. had to attack a castle. There's the ramparts. There's the drawbridge, and there's the moat. And so it was almost impossible to try to take this position.
BOWMAN: The plan was to hit the Confederates from two sides. Some would cross a river downstream; other federal troops would storm straight across the bridge.
SNYDER: This bridge is a crucial crossing.
BOWMAN: It took three Union assaults - and nearly three hours - to take the bridge. The final assault was led by Brig. Gen. Edward Ferrero, who led veteran soldiers from New York and Pennsylvania.
SNYDER: He had taken their whiskey ration because they got in a little trouble on the way up here. And of course, one of the fellows from Pennsylvania said, hey, if you give us our whiskey, we'll take the bridge.
BOWMAN: They did take the bridge, and later got a keg of whiskey. Thousands of Union troops climbed the bluff, and then the real fight began against the main Confederate force. But Gen. Lee's reinforcements saved his army, and the Union troops were pushed back to the bridge.
SNYDER: But basically, at the end of all of this combat - from 10 in the morning till dark - everybody's just about where they were when they started. The lines have shifted a hundred yards.
BOWMAN: So 23,000 casualties, 12 hours; and they're pretty much a stalemate.
SNYDER: Yes, sir.
BOWMAN: Late the next day, Gen. Robert E. Lee slipped his army across the Potomac. The Union commander, Gen. George McClellan, failed to pursue Lee. He was soon fired by President Lincoln. The partial victory at Antietam, gave Lincoln what he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. It would free the slaves in the Confederate states the following January. After Antietam, the war would no longer be just about preserving the Union.
Tom Bowman, NPR News.
MONTAGNE: And you can see photos of Antietam, taken just days after the battle, at our website. You can also see how the battlefield looks today.
INSKEEP: We asked photographer Todd Harrington to take pictures from the exact spots where the original photos were taken. He even used a Civil War-era camera, the kind where you stand under a black cloth to take the shot.
MONTAGNE: You can see the photos, and compare them to the originals, at npr.org; and hear more about Todd Harrington's process later today, on ALL THINGS CONSIDERED.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
MONTAGNE: This is NPR News.
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