AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
To mark the 150th anniversary of the battle, Todd Harrington, himself a photographer, set out to recreate some of Gardner's most famous Antietam images, using the same angles and the same technology. Todd Harrington joins us now. Welcome to the program, Todd.
TODD HARRINGTON: Well, thank you for having me.
CORNISH: So before we get to your project, set the scene for us. It's fall of 1862, why did these photos matter?
HARRINGTON: Well, the photographers located near Washington, D.C., Matthew Brady's firm - I think they realized early on in the conflict that to be able to document the Civil War that was taking place was a saleable item to them. I'm not going to make any apologies for them. I think they were very mercenary in their motives. They tried to document the first battle of Manassas. Matthew Brady was not able to get there in time. He sent photographers down to the peninsula with McClellan's army. They weren't able to get close enough to document a fresh battlefield as it appeared immediately after a conflict.
CORNISH: So Todd, tell us more about the technology that Gardner used. What were they using at the time? What are you using now?
HARRINGTON: In 1839, Louis Daguerre introduced the daguerreotype. It allowed the masses to now get a photographic image of themselves. The problem with it was there wasn't any way to make copies of that image. So they were one-offs, essentially. In 1851, Frederick Scott Archer introduced the web plate collodion process and it allowed a reasonable exposure and allowed multiple prints to made of a single collodion negative. By the 1860s, it was the predominant form of photography used by the photographic industry at that time.
CORNISH: Apparently these images were known for their clarity.
HARRINGTON: Absolutely. The web plate collodion negative is phenomenal, the level of detail you can get from these images. Essentially you have to make your film for every image that you take. So you start out from scratch with a raw piece of glass, you flood it with a substance called collodion, the collodion is then sensitized in a silver nitrate bath. You have to make the image, bring it back to your dark box, or dark room, fix the image and then store it, all before it dries.
CORNISH: And they were doing this on the battlefield essentially?
HARRINGTON: They had to do this on the battlefield, which, as you can imagine, was horrendous conditions.
CORNISH: These images also were an early kind of 3D, correct? I mean these were in stereo?
HARRINGTON: Yeah, Gardner set off to do these images using a stereo camera. The stereo camera has two lenses, it sees essentially the way that our eyes would see a scene. And the stereo effect, which is fooling your brain into seeing 3D, is then conveyed. They were extremely popular at the time. People didn't travel very far at that time. So to be able to see a 3D photograph of the Holy Land or the castles in Spain or something of that, was exciting. It was great entertainment.
CORNISH: You were saying that this was very exciting for people but listening to it now, it seems also quite strange because the intensity of the images merge with a kind of popular platform. I mean, selling these images of war seems macabre, I don't know other word.
HARRINGTON: I think that, as now, the public as a rule has a general sense of macabre curiosity. If you have something that is forbidden, you want to see it. There was sort of a lot of people who were shocked by these images but it really took them to a place that went beyond the casualty list that they saw every day in their local town. And it, I think, really put the true face of war in their minds. And from then on, we've had battlefield photographers in every conflict since.
CORNISH: Todd Harrington, thank you so much for talking with me.
HARRINGTON: Thank you very much.
CORNISH: Photographer Todd Harrington. To see his photographs of the Antietam battlefield alongside Alexander Gardner's originals, go to our website npr.org.
NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by a contractor for NPR, and accuracy and availability may vary. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Please be aware that the authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio.