AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:
It's ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Audie Cornish.
MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
And I'm Melissa Block.
A young mother sets sail from Ireland after the potato famine, traveling across the Atlantic to meet up with her husband in Canada, two gold prospectors seek their fortune in the frozen Yukon, a slave poisons his master and the master's wife joins him in escape. These storylines of characters on the move come from a new book of short stories by the Irish writer Emma Donoghue.
Her last book, the novel titled "Room," was an international bestseller and it got a lot of critical acclaim. Emma Donoghue's new collection is titled "Astray." Emma, welcome to the program.
EMMA DONOGHUE: Thank you. And thank you for pronouncing "Astray," right because it has shown up on a few press releases as Ashtray.
DONOGHUE: Which strikes me as a great title, but for a different book.
BLOCK: A totally other book. Well, I wanted to have you read some of the opening sections of one of the stories that I mentioned. It's called "Counting the Days." It's the story about the Irish mother sailing to Canada to meet her husband. Her name is Jane Johnson. She's on board the ship The Riverdale.
DONOGHUE: (Reading) And the year is 1849. What has appalled her the most on this little floating world of the Riverdale is not the squalor nor the hunger, but the durst of news. No one has left their company except for that old man who died of dysentery last week. No one has arrived unless you count the stillbirth down in steerage. The only gossip is the rumble of clouds and the occasional protest of (unintelligible).
(Reading) The passengers have to spend their time guessing what is happening in the real landlocked world now split in two for them like an apple, where on one side people weep for them and stare into the horizon that has swallowed them up and on the other side others stare back waiting for the first glimpse of them.
BLOCK: And what we learn in your author's note after this story that Jane Johnson and her husband Henry were real Irish immigrants. Where did you learn about them?
DONOGHUE: You know, I just keep an eye out for these things. I read social history. I, you know, in art galleries, I read the little captions underneath the paintings. I listen to the radio and just keep my ears open. I think the only difference between me and other people is that when I hear of an interesting historical incident, I immediately write it down and Google it.
I'm just a very persistent researcher, and I find things all the time. I would say the 14 stories in "Astray" come from about more like 40 different incidents that I came across. But not every incident makes a good short story because I've got to find a fresh angle, a new way in. For instance, one of my stories is about Jumbo the elephant, who is quite famous in himself. But I only found a way in to write about him fictionally when I decided to focus on his relationship with his keeper, who literally used to spend every evening lying around chatting to Jumbo and drinking whiskey with him and massaging his tongue and giving him little cuddles. So, you know what? I don't attempt to write a short story unless I can find my own peculiar angle on things.
BLOCK: And where did you find this couple, this Irish couple? Where did you hear about them?
DONOGHUE: Well, their letters were published by a descendant of theirs, actually. And so all the lines of theirs that I quote in the story were from letters published in the 1940s. And that's just a perfect source for the fictional imagination.
BLOCK: What was it in the letters that got you going, that made you think I can build a story around their relationship?
DONOGHUE: Because it's actually a very interesting marriage. You could see the strain, you know? And she'll write, you know, slightly guilt tripping him about could you not please send a bit of money to help us come out to Canada? And he'd write back saying, Can you come? And she'd write back saying, well, hang on, I have to raise the money.
And you can tell that each of them is slightly suspicious that the other is actually enjoying this time apart. And he would write very confidently, saying, oh, it's great out here. You know, every man is just as good as his master. There are no more class distinctions. And then he'd say on the back, literally scribbled on the back of the envelope, bring the gun. So, you know, you knew that no one country is ideal, that there were always perils and terrors to immigration, as well as pleasures.
And so you could really see this couple negotiating their marriage through these letters. Nothing bland or simple about them at all. And of course, what really seized me was the poignancy of the situation. And he got cholera and he died the very day that he was meant to come and meet her off the boat. So I'm just a sucker for a tragedy.
BLOCK: And you've given away the ending.
DONOGHUE: That particular one, yes. That's the only spoiler out of the 14, I promise.
BLOCK: I'm talking to Emma Donoghue about her new collection of short stories titled "Astray." Emma, the title of the collection suggests people who end up really where they shouldn't be, who've gotten off-course somehow. Is that how you think of it?
DONOGHUE: You know, Melissa, there's no neutral language about travel. Either travel is described in ways that make it sound kind of shallow or just glossy or silly or a way for rich people to spend their time or else travel is often described in quite derogatory ways, you know, like immigrants swarming across borders, for instance. And so I think a lot of the language of travel takes on moral overtones, you know. Concepts like being a vagabond or a drifter.
And I think very often we're nervous of people who change place and we assume that they're coming to steal our jobs and marry our daughters. So I think in the title of this collection I really wanted to emphasize the ways in which travel is never just travel. There are always overtones of people straying across other borders that they shouldn't be crossing, breaking laws or several of the stories in my book are about people and disguising their sex, for instance, or having interracial relationships or in other ways stepping over those very important lines in the sand that each society draws.
BLOCK: Did you find that these little historical nuggets that you found in documents and letters really lent themselves to short stories or did you ever feel like, I really want to take this character beyond into a longer form, maybe it's her own novel?
DONOGHUE: That has happened to me in the past. For instance, my novel "Slammerkin" was meant to be just a short story years and years ago, but I realized in trying to explain why somebody would pick up a meat cleaver and kill somebody with it in 1763, I actually did need the full novel form to explain that one. But actually I think the short story is perfect in many of these cases because, for one thing, a short story doesn't have to trudge through a whole life.
I mean, not that a novel has to either, but if you are writing a whole novel about some of the people in these stories, you might feel obliged to just sort of tackle their entire life. And what I love is that a short story just comes in sideways for a brief intervention. For instance, I've got one short story about a woman called Mollie Monroe, who, she spent the last quarter century of her life in an asylum in Arizona.
She was the first woman that Arizona locked up for insanity. And, you know, I don't want to have to tell her whole life with its very long, slow, sad ending. What I wanted to tell was the story of one particular adventure she got up to that just lasted a couple of days. So, in a way, you can catch people at their most alive and their most unexplained and peculiar and maverick if you come in sideways and make them the subject of a short story.
BLOCK: Emma, we mentioned that your last book, "Room," was a huge, huge success, set in an 11 by 11 foot room where a mother and her five-year-old son are being kept captive as prisoners. How liberating was it for you to go from the confines of that tiny space and that feeling of entrapment to this feeling of motion, of wide open spaces and a whole new life that's opening up?
DONOGHUE: Well, you know, oddly enough, writing "Room" didn't feel as all confining for me, because I was in the head of a five-year-old and they know no limits, you know. I mean, they're away with the fairies or off in outer space all the time. I mean, they have the least confined imaginations that I know. But I certainly did love, in "Astray," having to explore and get to know 14 different worlds.
I mean, it's not an efficient way to use your time, you know. You have to do enough research for each story that you could probably write a novel out of it, but it's like going on 14 different, amazing trips.
BLOCK: Emma Donoghue, it's been great to talk to you. Thank you so much.
DONOGHUE: It's been my pleasure.
BLOCK: That's Emma Donoghue. Her new collection of stories is called "Astray."
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