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ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Robert Siegel.

Tomorrow, the East African nation of Uganda will celebrate 50 years of independence. For more than half of that time, the country has had one president, a charismatic former rebel commander named Yoweri Museveni. He seized power while decrying other African leaders who overstayed their welcome.

And now, in his 26th year in office, more and more Ugandans believe that he has overstayed his welcome, as NPR's John Burnett reports,

JOHN BURNETT, BYLINE: They say in Kiseka Market, the huge used auto parts bazaar in the capital of Kampala, you can buy everything you need to assemble a Toyota Land Cruiser if you want to.

Here, the grease-stained shop owners speak their mind. A 26-year-old auto electrician named Jeremiah Senyondo is asked what he thinks of the president.

JEREMIAH SENYONDO: Myself, I was born in 1986 and all I have to tell you is I have never seen another president. And all I see is Museveni, Museveni. And what I feel on the inside of me is a difference, a change.

BURNETT: You want a change?

SENYONDO: Exactly.

BURNETT: This is the sentiment you hear more and more across Uganda - it's time for someone new. Yet President Museveni has dug in his heels. He spoke to Al-Jazeera last year, just before winning a fourth five-year term. He changed the constitution to loosen term limits.

PRESIDENT YOWERI MUSEVENI: The main point is, how would Africa transition from backwardness to modernity?

BURNETT: Museveni sees himself as an aging revolutionary, a historic figure who fought in the bush, overthrew dark forces, and whose mission to transform Uganda is not finished. This, despite the fact that he's been around for a quarter-century and is pushing 70.

MUSEVENI: Talk about the process of transformation from Third World to First World.

BURNETT: No one denies Museveni's accomplishments. Under his long rule, security has improved, the army is more disciplined, the economy has gained traction, more children go to school, the fight against HIV/AIDS has made progress, and Washington considers him a key regional partner in fighting terrorists in Somalia. Ugandan political scientist Frederick Golooba.

FREDERICK GOLOOBA: So, yes, Uganda has made great strides. But having said that, I think that we have reached a point where Uganda no longer needs Museveni. Most people would say that.

BURNETT: In Uganda's half century as a nation, it's no longer enough that Yoweri Museveni overthrew tyrants Idi Amin and Milton Obote. Once regarded as one of the most progressive leaders in Africa, today Ugandan analysts say Museveni increasingly resembles any other African big man - vainglory and egocentrism, nepotism and corruption, repression of opposition figures and intolerance of dissent.

Daniel Kalinaki is editor of the Daily Monitor newspaper.

DANIEL KALINAKI: I guess the longer you stay in power the more vulnerable you become. So, I think what we're seeing now is the government entering a phase where regime survival becomes a top priority.

BURNETT: The regime surviving becomes the top priority.

KALINAKI: Yeah.

BURNETT: A report released last month by Human Rights Watch, titled "Curtailing Criticism," claims the authoritarian climate in Uganda is typified by the president's treatment of certain non-governmental organizations, NGOs. The report says groups have recently faced closure, intimidation, arrest, and decertification for challenging the government's political and financial interests.

A small nonprofit called the Development and Child Welfare Initiative, stages civic engagement meetings in poor, mud-street Ugandan towns like this one, Kikyusa.

(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)

BURNETT: After the music has dies down, villagers not used to raising their voices are given the unique opportunity to hold a microphone and confront local officials. One man stands up and addresses the stony-faced district police commander. His statements are translated.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: (Through translator) What happens when you go to the officer to go and arrest the suspect, the officer asks money to go and arrest.

BURNETT: So he's complaining that when he goes to the police department to make a complaint there's been a crime committed, the officer asks for money to go arrest the suspect.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: Uh-huh, yeah. He's saying they ask 20,000.

BURNETT: So, he said the officer asks for 20,000 shillings, about $8 to go make an arrest.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: Yeah.

BURNETT: One by one, the people step forward to voice their grievances. A young woman asks, who is supposed to pick up the stinking garbage? A hotel owner asks, why should I pay taxes when the government does so little for this town? And why, demands a fuming parent, is a rich pineapple grower allowed to rape local children and then pay off the police to avoid arrest?

These sorts of questions make people in power uncomfortable, and that's the point. Driving away from the meeting, the project director, John Ssesanga, explains that when he went to renew his organization's registration earlier this year, he was told it was under investigation by the president's office. His NGO, which is supported by international donors, still has not been recertified.

JOHN SSESANGA: We are opening the peoples' eyes and ears to ask questions.

BURNETT: John, you say the Museveni government doesn't like what you're doing because you're opening the peoples' eyes and ears to question them.

SSESANGA: Yes. And people in government don't want to be asked questions, especially on matters concerning corruption.

BURNETT: The president's spokesman would not return NPR's repeated calls to comment on this story. Defense Minister Crispus Kiyonga, a protege of the president's for 26 years, said in an interview that foreign NGOs operate with anarchy in Uganda and they need more oversight. When asked about the president's longevity in office, he smiled and said, it's up to Ugandans to decide whether they want to keep Yoweri Museveni when he runs for an expected fifth term in 2016.

John Burnett, NPR News.

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