MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
And finally this hour, a trip to Papua New Guinea with photographer Jake Warga. The moment he arrived he was surprised by what he saw - a place and a people struggling to move beyond the expectations of outsiders.
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JAKE WARGA, BYLINE: Few places are more exotic in the imagination than Papua New Guinea. It should be like entering a National Geographic cover story with exotic deadly animals and, of course, cannibals. But once I stepped off the Air New Guinea jet, I entered a huge gap - the gap between the past and the present.
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WARGA: The Sepik River basin, deep in the heart of the country, is a popular tourist destination. It's a real jungle river tour with dense greenery, massive birds and stops at tribal villages to meet the locals.
AMBROSE OTTO: OK, my name is Ambrose Otto. I'm from Imas village.
WARGA: Ambrose is the leader of the Imas village along the banks of the Sepik River. But there are two Imas villages.
OTTO: This is Imas number one, the traditional Imas one.
WARGA: There's the village where most people live in the present, but we're in the traditional village, the one living in the past where tourists go. They perform dances supposedly like they did before outsiders came. I know where Papua New Guinea is, but I'm not sure when it is.
OTTO: But we must have speak our own language, which is Karam language.
WARGA: But recreating the past for the tourists' quest for the authentic is helping them to preserve their culture and language.
OTTO: The young generation coming up lose their dialect now. They only speak pidgin English. It's one of the area where this village is now failing. So we are trying our best to, you know, restart the traditions before the old people pass away.
WARGA: Luckily, one tradition that's not coming back, as I note the plump weight of visiting tourists, is cannibalism. Lots of visitors want to hear about cannibals, but the practice stopped in the 1930s.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: Well, I gave her a low price so she could come up a little bit.
WARGA: I wonder if tourists have become the cannibals.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: Because you generally bargain.
WARGA: Women have lined up souvenirs along the path back to the boat. Even a living museum exits through a gift shop.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: She dropped down to 20.
WARGA: In a globalized world, it is culture that is commodified and consumed. We travel further upriver to another village and like everywhere, we're greeted by excited children. As part of our tour, an elder demonstrates how to peel bark off a log. A woman cooks over an open fire. A canoe is being chopped into shape.
PAUL: The white people came here like first missionaries. They came in for first contact and start to tell them, wear these clothes.
WARGA: This is Paul, a guide with the Karawari Lodge. He's talking about Western clothes, which I don't see anyone wearing. No T-shirts or shorts. Just grass skirts, bare breasts, skimpy loincloths and naked children.
PAUL: People who are in Western clothes are not allowed to get close to people who are dressed up in the local dressings, because they are with the tourists taking pictures.
WARGA: Every tourist has a camera. We take images, cannibalize a moment in light. We often confuse authentic with poverty, past with present.
PAUL: Tourists are taking pictures. They don't want to take pictures of those who are in Western clothes.
WARGA: It's the 21st century, but while visiting a traditional village, I'm being pulled forward into the past. I'm visiting a time that the villagers themselves never even experienced.
PAUL: This is our own lifestyle, in the past.
WARGA: I ask Paul if the village wants to live in the past. People dressed up here, do they want to go back?
WARGA: So why do you do it?
PAUL: It's too far now away that they can't go back to traditional dressings now because they are now influencing the Western culture now.
WARGA: So when white men first came up the river they told the native people to put on clothes, stop speaking the local language, abandon their traditional ways and, here's a Bible. Now, white people come and say, take off your Western clothes, embrace and display your traditional ways, but keep the Bible.
JACKSON: My name is Jackson (unintelligible). Our ancestors were cannibals. That's why they hunt the indigenous group of people to eat.
WARGA: Jackson and his band are performing at the Kokopo Lodge for us white folk. Bringing us closer to the present was the song about my lost tribe, California.
(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "HOTEL CALIFORNIA")
UNIDENTIFIED PEOPLE: (Singing) Welcome to the Hotel California.
(SOUNDBITE OF CHILDREN SINGING)
WARGA: In the quest for the real, the authentic, I finally arrived in the present while seeking shelter from a rainstorm in a schoolhouse. On the Duke of York Island, the children, most in shorts, some in T-shirts, the girls in Western dresses, sing a song for me, one they all know: the Papua New Guinea national anthem.
(SOUNDBITE OF CHILDREN SINGING)
WARGA: For NPR, I'm Jake Warga, in the present in Papua New Guinea.