RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
Over 10 million American residential properties are under water, Tied to mortgages valued higher than the homes, apartments or condos are actually worth. That's a big issue for the economy and for many voters. So far, though, it hasn't featured much in the presidential campaign, which could be because both sides say there's no easy fix to the problem.
In our series called Solve This, we're looking at what the campaigns are promising to do. Here's NPR's Yuki Noguchi.
YUKI NOGUCHI, BYLINE: Cathy Busby and her husband co-owned a realty office in Denver, Colorado, when they bought their house in 2006. The next year, the market for houses dried up, leaving them with little income as their house lost value.
Did you consider yourself upper middle class or upper class before this all happened?
CATHY BUSBY: Yeah. Absolutely.
NOGUCHI: Now what do would you consider yourself?
BUSBY: Poverty level.
NOGUCHI: The presidential debates come to Busby's home town tomorrow. And she says she's just one of many voters in swing states who say they want better housing solutions out of Washington. She says her lender offered three separate loan modifications - only to rescind each one, even though she says she signed and paid everything required. Busby says she and her husband also spent countless hours trying to help some 50 other Denver families negotiate with banks to get their mortgages modified. Not one of those attempts was successful.
BUSBY: I'll tell you what I learned. It doesn't make any difference what you do. These banks never had any intentions of really modifying loans.
NOGUCHI: Now, obviously some banks did modify loans and some can prove it, but lots of people share Busby's view, that as an industry, there wasn't much of an effort.
The Obama administration has tried through a variety of programs to encourage the modification of loans, offering banks both incentives and penalties in order to do so. In the last year, the administration has pushed for more loan forgiveness. It's backing a bill in Congress that would reduce fees for refinancing.
MONTAGNE: Speaking in February, in Virginia, another swing state, President Obama unveiled a refinancing program for those who are under water but still current on payments.
PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA: Too many families haven't been able to take advantage of the low rates, because falling prices locked them out of the market. They're underwater, made more difficult for them to refinance.
NOGUCHI: Michael Barr is a University of Michigan law professor, a former Treasury official, and a surrogate for the Obama Campaign. He says since President Obama took office, 16 million homeowners have refinanced and another five million have modified their loans, either through a government or bank program.
In a second term, Barr says, the president would both fine-tune existing programs and ensure the new Dodd-Frank financial regulations create a strong safeguard for future homeowners.
MICHAEL BARR: There is no silver bullet. There are lots of things that need to get done. Each homeowner's circumstance is somewhat different. And trying to find out how to get them help is I think a more complicated and difficult task than would be reflected in a, you know, a bullet point or a soundbite.
NOGUCHI: Late last fall, in an interview with the Las Vegas Review-Journal, Mitt Romney seemed to dismiss the government's efforts to modify loans.
MITT ROMNEY: Don't try and stop the foreclosure process, let it run its course and hit the bottom, allow investors to buy homes, put renters in them, fix the homes up and let it turn around and come back up.
NOGUCHI: Former Republican Congressman Rick Lazio is a spokesman on housing for the Romney campaign. He says Romney would not abandon modification or refinancing programs. But he would focus more on rolling back new financial regulations, as well as winding down mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac - a process the Obama administration has already begun.
RICK LAZIO: In our view, President Obama's response to the mortgage crisis has been slow, confused and largely ineffective.
NOGUCHI: Lazio says Romney's fix for housing goes beyond specific policy prescriptions.
LAZIO: Jobs and the economic picture is overwhelmingly the most important part of the solution.
NOGUCHI: Urban Institute president Sarah Rosen Wartell says so far, the campaigns have a lot more in common than their rhetoric suggests.
SARAH ROSEN WARTELL: Many of the most interesting questions are places where neither candidate has laid out their direction.
NOGUCHI: Questions about government's role in the housing sector, from regulating access to credit, for example, to whether to eliminate the popular but expensive mortgage interest deduction - questions that may not affect the immediate term, but could affect how the housing sector will function for years to come.
Yuki Noguchi, NPR News, Washington.
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