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RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:

The next few weeks are a busy time for apple growers. In Washington State, they're harvesting their second-largest crop in history and prices are high this year. But instead of celebrating, growers are fretting that there won't be enough workers to pick the fruit off the trees.

Northwest News Network's Anna King reports.

ANNA KING, BYLINE: This should be the happiest, busiest time of year in the orchards. But now, just as the peak of apple harvest is coming on, manager Roger Bairstow is wincing.

ROGER BAIRSTOW: There are quite a few of us that aren't sleeping through the night.

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KING: We're at the massive Broetje Orchards in Southeast, Washington. Right now, Broetje has nearly 2,000 workers. They're out in the trees on tall aluminum ladders, plucking dusty-red and green apples from the trees.

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KING: Music plays from the smartphones of workers. Gala apples thud gently into the waiting bins.

Bairstow says the orchard still needs at least 200 more experienced pickers. And apples have a limited branch-life.

BAIRSTOW: So the longer an apple stays on the tree, the worse the condition gets and the less likelihood of getting a good price in the markets - to some point where it's not even worth picking.

KING: If the fruits are left on the tree too long, they can only be used for apple sauce or juice, which is less profitable than whole fruit, or they'll be left on the branches to rot.

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KING: The labor shortage comes just as Washington State's apples are worth more. That's because competitors like New York, Michigan, Canada and Europe have low-yields this year due to bad weather. And, China, the world's biggest apple producer, is keeping more of its fruit at home to feed an expanding middle class.

With the strong market, Washington farmers are going to extremes to get and keep workers. Some are buying commuter vans to port employees from one orchard to the next. Others are paying up to 15 percent more in wages, or giving bonuses for workers who stay the whole season.

Broetje is building its own rental apartments in town and advertising for pickers as far away as Arizona and Ohio. The fastest workers can earn about $1,000 a week.

RUIZ OLMAN: The price is good. Yeah, it's good, the price.

KING: Apple picker Ruiz Olman is earning about $50 more each week compared to last year. And for him, this orchard is easier to get to from where he lives.

OLMAN: Here, I like working here. Here, here is good, yeah.

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KING: This work is physically very hard.

Jeff Rippon is a manager at nearby Chiawana Orchards. He says pickers have to scale tall ladders and carry 40-pound sacks of apples on their chests for at least eight hours a day. He'll hire anyone that wants the work, but he still has trouble finding enough people.

JEFF RIPPON: I've been picking apples since 1965 and I've never seen a white person yet pick for more than an hour.

KING: Seriously?

RIPPON: Seriously. By the time you get the paperwork done, they've decided it's too hard to do.

KING: And another problem for farmers: fewer migrant workers are coming up from Mexico. That's because there's more violence there and increased security on the border.

It's too late to fix these problems for this year, but farmers are planning for the future. Some are planting new, shorter trees so picking is easier. Others are developing mobile platforms to help pickers gather apples without ladders. Rippon says one way or another, growers who want to stay in business will have to address the labor shortage.

RIPPON: A few people will go broke and a few people will make a whole lot of money. And among the people that will make the money are the ones who can adapt to change. And it's just a fact of life.

KING: As for now, apple farmers are racing winter. Workers will stop showing up in the orchards as the colder weather sets in. Many farmers worry that in these next few weeks the worker shortage will only turn more rotten.

For NPR News, I'm Anna King in Richland, Washington.

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