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SCOTT SIMON, HOST:

This week, the MacArthur Foundation handed out its annual genius grants.

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SIMON: Missed again. Among the 23 recipients: an economist, a mathematician, a photographer, a neuroscientist and a Boston-based stringed instrument bow maker. Andrea Shea of member station WBUR visited Benoit Rolland in his home studio and has his story.

ANDREA SHEA, BYLINE: Benoit Rolland acknowledges that the violin reigns supreme as the star of the strings, capable of fetching millions of dollars at auction. But what about the bow?

BENOIT ROLLAND: A violin with no bow is not a violin. That's clear.

SHEA: Amen says Elita Kang, assistant concert master of the Boston Symphony Orchestra.

ELITA KANG: A lot of people, I think even some instrumentalists, in our younger years we believe that the violin is of paramount importance and the bow is just a tool. But the bow is just as important as the violin because that is our breath, that's how we draw the sound out of the instrument. So, without a fine bow that's responsive and flexible and finely made, we can't express ourselves fully.

SHEA: Kang says a significant number of BSO musicians use bows made by Rolland. So have some of the most famous string players of all time: Menuhin, Grapelli, Rostropovich. Over the past four decades, Rolland has made more than 1,400 bows for violins, violas and cellos.

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ROLLAND: The bow is extremely important for a musician because it has to convey the personality, the musicality, the feelings, the emotion of the musician through it. It's something that have to behave like a muscle.

SHEA: That understanding is only part of why Rolland won a Macarthur Genius Grant. He's revered for his knowledge of traditional bow making skills, but also his innovations. He pioneered the first concert-grade graphite bow. And his most recent invention is an updated frog - the piece on the bow's end used to adjust tension.

ROLLAND: It's much more stable. So, it's easier to play, more responsive, the sound is fuller, most of the time, not all of the time. And this frog is adjustable on any existing stick.

SHEA: Rolland's journey as a bow maker began in Paris, where his grandmother was a concert pianist. Rolland had perfect pitch, and when he was 9 he fell in love with the violin. He graduated from the conservatories of Paris and Versailles and was on track to become a professional musician when he saw a spectacular bow.

This bow was so beautiful, fitted with gold, 18 karats, and magnificent mother of pearl and magnificent wood. It was like a jewel. So, at this very moment I understood this was what I want to do.

He went on to study the traditional French method of bow making and has been doing this ever since.

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ROLLAND: This one is extremely resonating.

SHEA: Rolland selects skinny blanks of wood from his large stash. Each piece emits a unique sound.

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ROLLAND: That one will be even different, even lower.

SHEA: Then there are the 100-150 Mongolian horse hairs that become the ribbon. But Rolland says the most important variables are the musicians themselves. He interviews them, watches them perform and listens closely to their music.

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MIRIAM FREED: My name is Miriam Fried and I'm a violinist and I teach at New England Conservatory. And what I'm really excited about is the fact that Benoit Rolland was one of the recipients of the MacArthur Grant, which I think is fabulous.

SHEA: Fried has three of his bows and is one of the many musicians who wrote letters to the MacArthur Foundation endorsing Rolland's nomination. His years of bow making have stiffened his fingers, so it's difficult for him to play nowadays, but Rolland says he still enjoys watching and listening to other musicians using his bows.

ROLLAND: Because I see this person playing so intimate music with something I brought in his hands. So, it's marvelous.

SHEA: And Benoit Rolland says the MacArthur Grant stipend of $500,000 will enable him not only to improve his centuries-old art, but also to pursue even more innovations. For NPR News, I'm Andrea Shea in Boston.

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SIMON: This is WEEKEND EDITION from NPR News. I'm Scott Simon.

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