ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
Now from a cross-border crisis to Germany's internal struggles with extremism. Human rights groups say that over the past two decades, more than 180 people have been killed in right-wing attacks. And the country's interior minister says that xenophobia and neo-Nazism are on the rise. As NPR's Sylvia Poggioli reports, German authorities are sounding the alarm.
SYLVIA POGGIOLI, BYLINE: The spread of neo-Nazi influence in Germany came to light fully last year with the shocking discovery of a neo-Nazi terrorist cell responsible for the worst right-wing violence since World War II: the murders of at least nine people of migrant origin as well as bomb attacks and bank robberies.
In response, Germany, last month, established the first centralized neo-Nazi database, similar to those that existed for decades for Islamic and leftist extremists. Germans have been stunned that despite six decades of required anti-Nazi teaching in schools, right-wing extremism is still attracting recruits. Interior Minister Hans-Peter Friedrich has warned that neo-Nazis are knowingly infiltrating civil society to achieve their goals.
Schoneweide, a suburb in southeast Berlin, is considered an ultra-right-wing stronghold. A visit here on a rainy Saturday afternoon is like a trip back in time to the bleak period of communist East Germany - dreary, closed shops and glum expressions on the few people out on streets. The Executioner, a bar frequented by known neo-Nazis, opens only in the evening. Its window panes are thick and impossible to see through. A young man walking his dog looks at the shuttered door fearfully.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Speaking foreign language)
POGGIOLI: I'd never go in there, he says, or over there, as he points us further down the street and moves quickly away. A block down, we find a shop named for a violent explosive, Hexogen. It sells batons, knives and clothes with neo-Nazi codes such as 88, for Heil Hitler - the letter H being eighth in the alphabet. Daniel Koehler, a researcher at Exit, an association that helps former right-wing extremists return to mainstream society, says the neo-Nazi goal is to create so-called national liberated areas.
DANIEL KOEHLER: As a movement, they try to concentrate. They try to set up a social infrastructure. We even have parts in Berlin where they would control whole streets. They have their own bars. They have their own supermarkets. They have their own bookstores. So this is a strategic concept.
POGGIOLI: The ultra-right has been particularly successful in former East Germany, where 22 years after unification, unemployment is almost twice as high as in the West. The NPD, the National Democratic Party, which glorifies the Third Reich, has won seats in two regional parliaments and numerous municipalities. They organize sports events, music concerts, summer festivals and run youth clubs. But the right-wing movement, Koehler says, is fluid and dynamic and present all over Germany. The NPD, which like other parties with local deputies, receives government funding, is the focal point.
KOEHLER: The NPD provides an umbrella. They provide space to meet, to talk, to interact, to network.
POGGIOLI: After last year's discovery of the neo-Nazi terrorist cell, several officials, including the head of the domestic intelligence agency, had to step down. And just last week, two paid police informers were arrested on charges of having supplied the terror cell with weapons and explosives. The revelations caused huge embarrassment among the police and the media, which had long dismissed the murders as intra-immigrant vendetta killings, codenamed Operation Bosporus, after the strait that marks the boundary between Europe and Turkey. Commentator Stephan Kuzmany says that name alone speaks volumes.
STEPHAN KUZMANY: The thought that they are committing those crimes between each other is much easier thought than the thought that Germans who hates foreigners would do that.
POGGIOLI: At a cafe in Kreuzburg, perhaps Berlin's most multicultural district, a large crowd has turned up for a panel discussion on the ultra-right-wing movement. One speaker notes the 180 racially motivated murders in Germany since reunification. Another participant points to intelligence statistics saying there are now 20 to 30,000 hardcore, ultra-right militants ready to use violence at any moment. A third panelist stresses that numerous recent polls show that one-third of Germans say the country would be better off without foreigners. Twenty percent of Germany's 80 million people have foreign roots. For this reason, Mely Kiyak, a journalist of migrant origin, says she's not worried only about the ultra-right.
MELY KIYAK: The problem are the people in Germany themselves. The Germans think that we have got too much foreigners in this country.
POGGIOLI: After years of ignoring the problem, German authorities now seem determined to tackle rightwing extremism. Law enforcement agencies have collected 1,000 pages worth of evidence showing the NPD as anti-Semitic, racist and anti-democratic. But authorities are moving cautiously. A first attempt in 2003 to get the NPD banned failed when the Constitutional Court ruled that the party had been so deeply infiltrated by police it was hard to determine who was in charge. Sylvia Poggioli, NPR News, Berlin.
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