STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:
This is the program where we listen to people around the world and occasionally also listen to an elephant.
(SOUNDBITE OF ELEPHANT TRUMPETING)
INSKEEP: That's a young male trumpeting in Kenya's Aberdare National Park.
The slaughter of elephants and the seizure of illegal ivory has soared to their highest levels in decades. A growing market for ivory in Asia and haphazard wildlife protection in Africa have put elephant herds at risk throughout the African continent.
NPR's John Burnett has the first of two reports from one of Africa's worst elephant killing grounds: Tanzania.
JOHN BURNETT, BYLINE: First of all, Tanzania matters. The East African country is one of the world's last great repositories of elephants, Perhaps 70 to 80,000 elephants roam this nation's immense sanctuaries, that may be a quarter of all African elephants.
In colonial times, the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar held the largest ivory auctions in the world, now only fish are sold that way.
Today, Tanzania has regained its dark distinction. From 2009 to 2011, the country was the leading exporter of illegal ivory in the world. Thirty-seven percent of all elephant tusks seized by law enforcement came from Tanzania. Kenya is a close second. Indeed, this past weekend, customs officials in Hong Kong announced the seizure of nearly four tons worth of ivory hidden in two containers, shipped from Indian Ocean ports in Tanzania and Kenya.
Whether the ivory is merely transshipped through Tanzanian ports or plundered from its parks is a point of contention. Conservationists say Tanzania has, for years, been one of Africa's worst elephant slaughterhouses. They blame it on authorities who are unable or unwilling to control poaching and trafficking. The government acknowledges there's a problem and says reforms are under way.
IAIN DOUGLAS-HAMILTON: There's an enormous slaughter of elephants going on in Tanzania right now. Things are out of hand.
BURNETT: Iain Douglas-Hamilton has been studying and protecting elephants in Africa for 47 years.
DOUGLAS-HAMILTON: There's no protection in numbers for elephants, any more than there was for bison in last century when they were all wiped out in America. So people shouldn't kid themselves.
BURNETT: Tanzania had been curiously mute over the massacre of its elephants until August, when an avuncular, white-haired member of parliament announced this astounding figure. He was interviewed earlier this month.
JAMES LEMBELI: Thirty elephants a day. At the end of the year, you're talking about 10,000 elephants killed.
BURNETT: Thirty dead elephants a day may actually be low, says James Lembeli, chairman of the Natural Resources Committee and a former National Parks official.
LEMBELI: Move around this country where you have populations of elephants: carcasses everywhere.
BURNETT: I decided to go see for myself.
(SOUNDBITE OF WHISTLING)
BURNETT: Two Maasai tribesmen in tire-tread sandals use elaborate whistling to herd their cattle. They know this landscape of dry thorn brush and tawny grass intimately. So they lead us to a recent elephant kill on the Tanzania-Kenya border.
We just walked up on the carcass of a dead elephant. It was killed about two weeks ago. All that's left now is just this great leathery hide, gray on the outside, pink on the inside, decomposing on the savanna. The poachers hauled off the tusks. The villagers came and cut away all the meat, took the head. And this scene is being repeated, again and again, across Tanzania.
(SOUNDBITE OF FOOTSTEPS)
BURNETT: Poachers come in all types in Africa these days. Congo recently accused Ugandan soldiers of machine-gunning elephants from a military helicopter. Some poachers track jumbos on foot for days like big-game hunters. Others use hi-tech shortcuts.
Robert Waltenburg manages Lake Chala Safari Camp, a small, private game reserve where we found the carcass. It's one of eight elephants killed here in recent weeks. Waltenburg believes his clients unintentionally target the animals when they post photos of big tuskers on social media, which is monitored by resourceful poachers.
ROBERT WALTENBURG: But all the media sites, you know, Facebook, peoples' blogs. It's so easy to research on Internet, just type in 'elephant sightings. Things will pop up.
BURNETT: According the MIKE program, Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants, poachers are responsible for 60 to 90 percent of elephant deaths in Tanzanian wildlife reserves. National parks like the Serengeti are better protected.
Like other African countries, Tanzania is losing its elephants to poverty, poor administration, and corruption. First, a pair of big tusks is a year's income to a subsistence peasant. Second, wildlife rangers are ill paid and demoralized; and punishment for a convicted poacher can be as little as a $13 fine. Third, individuals inside the Tanzania Ministry of Natural Resources have been selling out the nation's biological heritage that they were supposed to protect.
In the last few months, the minister and top officials in the Wildlife Department were sacked for their roles in two scandals: taking bribes for the assignments of hunting blocs and allowing 116 live wild animals to be loaded onto a jumbo jet and smuggled out of the country to Qatar.
The new minister, a former diplomat named Khamis Kagasheki, gets high marks from wildlife advocates. In his office in Dar es Salaam, Kagasheki is asked if people in this building helped the poachers.
KHAMIS KAGASHEKI: You know, there has been, of course, there's been corruption. We have difficulties, quite frankly.
BURNETT: His concern is echoed by an outspoken tour operator, Pratick Patel.
PRATICK PATEL: I think a lot more firing needs to be done. We know, for a fact, the whole industry knows, for a fact, that a lot of the wildlife department are involved. It's very much involved in poaching in the game reserves. Unfortunately, the Wildlife Department has, to some extent, been operating like an independent company
BURNETT: It doesn't have to be like this. The Natural Resources minister admires his northern neighbor, Kenya, whose anti-poaching laws and wildlife service are much tougher on elephant killers. Kagasheki says he's trying to turn around the culture of the ministry he took over five months ago.
KAGASHEKI: What I'm saying is we have to be stringent. We have absolutely no choice. These people are killing innocent animals with impunity. And when you look at these elephants, beautiful beasts. Harmless.
BURNETT: Conservationists are dubious of Tanzania's commitment to elephants. This month, Tanzania notified the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species that the country would like to sell off its 100-ton stockpile of confiscated ivory, and downgrade the protection of elephants. The government says a one-off ivory sale will raise millions for wildlife protection. Conservationists say ivory sales just fuel the slaughter of more elephants.
INSKEEP: John Burnett, NPR News, Nairobi.
(SOUNDBITE OF MUSIC)
INSKEEP: And this afternoon on ALL THINGS CONSIDERED, John travels to an ivory poaching village. For more on these stories, go to NPR.ORG.
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