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From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish.
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I'm Melissa Block. Normally, when disasters hit, relief workers have to put their own lives at risk. For example, in Japan last year, many people responding to the meltdown at the Fukushima nuclear reactor received dangerous doses of radiation. Well, now the Pentagon is sponsoring a contest to develop robots that are able to perform dangerous relief work. NPR's Larry Abramson reports.
LARRY ABRAMSON, BYLINE: Immediately after the tsunami and explosions that damaged the Fukushima plant, workers had no way to access areas where radiation levels were lethal. Robots from Massachusetts-based iRobot had to be rushed in. iRobot CEO Colin Angle says valuable time was lost as personnel were trained how to use them.
COLIN ANGLE: You know, robots on site would have saved days. Appropriate training would have saved days and potentially could have minimized the venting of some of the radioactive gasses.
ABRAMSON: That's why DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, this week launched a Robotics Challenge to encourage the development of robots that anyone can use. Seven hardware teams announced this week will compete for a $2 million prize. Among the robot competitors is an entry called Hubo.
PAUL OH: Hubo, I would say, is about the size of a 10-year-old American boy.
ABRAMSON: Professor Paul Oh leads the Drexel University team that built Hubo. This week, he learned some of the challenges Hubo will face in a junkyard-wars-style competition next year. The robots will have to open a blocked door, operate a valve, climb a ladder and, perhaps the toughest, getting into and driving a vehicle. Paul Oh says when we drive, we rely on lots of sensations, like when you hit an obstacle.
OH: You can feel it with your wheel. You also hear things. These are all perceptual challenges that we have to teach our robot.
ABRAMSON: Paul Oh and the other researchers have until next year to teach their robots these tasks. During the actual challenge, DARPA folks will be throwing a lot of curves at the competitors, like messing with their communications. You'd expect a lot of radio interference if you were working in a damaged nuclear reactor or in a collapsed building after a terror attack.
Nicholas Radford of the NASA team from the Johnson Space Center says it's just like planning to send a robot into space.
NICHOLAS RADFORD: A lot of our research at NASA JSC for the last 10 years has focused primarily on how do we deal with systems in remote locations with crappy communication.
ABRAMSON: The NASA Johnson entry is derived from the Robonaut. There's one on the International Space Station right now. It's pretty humanoid-looking. Radford says, in this challenge, the human form has lots of pluses because the contest focuses on man-made industrial environments.
RADFORD: Everything from the step height of stairs it might have to negotiate to door handles, what things have been placed at eye level for people to see and look at.
ABRAMSON: But the human form also has its limitations, so another entry takes a backward evolutionary step. The RoboSimian from NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab has the advantage of being able to grasp things with all four limbs, like a chimp a can. But JPL's Brett Kennedy says he hasn't figured out the car driving thing yet.
BRETT KENNEDY: Sitting in a seat designed for a human when you don't look as human-like is going to be interesting. It can be done, but it might look a little awkward.
ABRAMSON: This is complicated stuff. But DARPA's Gill Pratt says in order to win the challenge, these robots must be easy to use.
GILL PRATT: Often, the people who know the most and who are at the site or near the site are not robotics experts and don't have time for training.
ABRAMSON: If you're wondering why the Defense Department is spending money on something like this, Gill Pratt says the answer is simple.
PRATT: Both humanitarian assistance and disaster relief is one of the 10 primary missions that the U.S. DOD has that works throughout the world.
ABRAMSON: Of course, Pratt says, there's always the chance the technology will find its way onto the battlefield, but the focus now is on saving lives by keeping relief workers safe. Larry Abramson, NPR News.