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Residents of Moonachie and Little Ferry, New Jersey, are beginning to clear away the damage. Their communities were inundated by floodwaters when a system of levees and berms failed to control the storm surge pushed ashore by Sandy. NPR's Joe Palca wanted to ask the New Jersey agency responsible for levees, whether those levees were properly maintained. But he discovered, there is no such agency.
JOE PALCA, BYLINE: There's an agency responsible for dams, and there's an agency responsible for responding to emergencies. But levees are maintained to whatever standard a local community feels is adequate. Officials in Bergen County are still evaluating why the levee system didn't work for Moonachie and Little Ferry. To say that the levee system in New Jersey is antiquated, is hardly an understatement.
STATE SEN. STEPHEN SWEENEY: The county that I live in - Gloucester County - there's been a levee system that's been in place, I think, from King George era.
PALCA: Stephen Sweeney is talking about the British King George, who was on the throne during the American Revolution. Sweeney is president of the New Jersey State Senate. He says his Southern Jersey county relies on a system of levees along the Delaware River, to prevent flooding.
SWEENEY: Back in 1999 - Hurricane Floyd, I think it was - we were within an inch or two, of the whole levee being breached. And if it breached in this area of the state of New Jersey, it would have cut off 295 and the New Jersey Turnpike.
PALCA: Those two interstates are crucial to commerce in the Northeast, so you might think the federal government would cough up some money to protect them. But Sweeney says it doesn't.
SWEENEY: We have been putting our county resources to work, and state resources to work. But we won't get any federal money unless the thing, basically, collapses.
PALCA: And maybe not even then. A report in 2010 found that none of the levees in Gloucester County met the standards set by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, that would qualify them for federal assistance. Jeffrey Mount doesn't find that surprising.
JEFFREY MOUNT: Most of the levees in the country, when you look at them, don't make it to those basic standards.
PALCA: Mount is a geologist at the University of California-Davis, who studies the role of levees in flood-management programs.
MOUNT: The problem is that when we do do levees that meet - for example - our very, very minimal federal standards, we tend to think we've solved the problem.
PALCA: But Mount says that's not so.
MOUNT: There's - really, are only two kinds of levees: those that have failed, and those that will fail.
PALCA: But people blithely build communities that are critically dependent on levees.
MOUNT: So that when the eventual failure comes, the damages are very, very, very high.
PALCA: The flooding brought by Sandy will, inevitably, bring calls for more flood-protection systems. David Dzombak is a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, in Pittsburgh. He chaired a committee for the National Research Council that evaluated the state of flood-management systems in this country. He says it's not enough to just build new levees and floodgates, to protect communities.
DAVID DZOMBAK: Once you build this hard infrastructure, there has to be a commitment - and hopefully, now, a commitment upfront - of putting dollars aside to maintaining it forever.
PALCA: A commitment lasting forever will be very, very expensive. But rebuilding after floods can be even more expensive.
Joe Palca, NPR News, Washington.
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This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED, from NPR News.