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Now, some new numbers about the race for control of the Senate. The number show how groups unaffiliated with political campaigns are spending their money. The total in the course of this election cycle: more than $100 million spent on about a dozen Senate races.
And much of that spending comes from groups who do not have to disclose their donors, as NPR's Tamara Keith reports.
TAMARA KEITH, BYLINE: For those of you in states with a competitive Senate race, this won't come as a surprise. There are a lot of TV ads trying to sway the outcome. Take Ohio, the Senate race with the most TV ad spending. As of last Saturday, stations had aired more than 64,000 ads, but the majority of them didn't come from the candidates or the parties. They came from outside groups.
(SOUNDBITE OF POLITICAL ADS)
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: It's time to boot Brown. Crossroads GPS is responsible for the content of this advertising.
UNIDENTIFIED WOMAN: Let's call him former Senator Brown. Club for Growth Action is responsible for the content of this advertising.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #2: Ohio needs a senator who will put the middle class first and that's not Josh Mandel. NEA Fund for Children and Public Education is responsible for the content of this advertising.
KEITH: If that montage sounded unbalanced, that's because so are the ads in Ohio. According to an NPR analysis of TV advertising data provided to NPR and the PBS NewsHour by Kantar Media, groups supporting the Republican candidate Josh Mandel and opposing the incumbent Democrat Sherrod Brown have run four times more ads than those backing the Democrat.
GUY CECIL: We are being significantly outspent.
KEITH: Guy Cecil is executive director of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee.
CECIL: What we've seen, really, over the last year is an unprecedented amount of money largely being spent by a dozen billionaires from around the country who are willing to spend just about anything in order to win.
KEITH: In reality, it's hard to know for sure where the money is coming from. In Ohio, on the Republican side, more than 95 percent of the independent TV ad spending has come from groups that are not required to disclose the identities of their donors. This includes Crossroads GPS, the biggest spender in Ohio and in Senate contests nationwide and, in a not-so-distant second, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce.
SCOTT REED: We're up there. That's good. I'd be disappointed if we weren't.
KEITH: Scott Reed is the senior political strategist at the chamber. As of last Saturday, the chamber had spent more than $5 million on TV ads in Ohio alone, one of 15 Senate races where it was on the air. Here's how Reed describes the chamber's efforts this election year.
REED: The largest, most aggressive voter education campaign in our 100-year history.
KEITH: And the fact that so much of this spending is coming from groups with secret donors, Reed says it's just free speech.
REED: The chamber is a 501c6 organization that operates legally. We do not have to disclose our donors.
KEITH: Many argue the Ohio Senate race wouldn't even be competitive without all of the outside spending to boost the Republican challenger. On the airwaves, State Treasurer Josh Mandel only spent a third of the $18 million spent by these independent groups.
David Keating, president of the Center for Competitive Politics and the father of the superPAC, isn't persuaded.
DAVID KEATING: The fact that a race may be competitive when it wasn't expected to be, I think we should be celebrating that.
KEITH: When it comes to TV spending by outside groups, the split has been far from even. Republican candidates have benefited more than twice as much as their Democratic counterparts. In a majority of those races, like in Ohio, the Republican candidate's campaign was actually outspent by outside groups. And in Virginia...
(SOUNDBITE OF POLITICAL AD)
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #3: Big government isn't going to help the American recovery.
KEITH: Former Senator George Allen has spent less than $3 million on TV, while the outside groups spent more than $14 million.
(SOUNDBITE OF POLITICAL AD)
UNIDENTIFIED MAN #4: Call George Allen. Tell him to keep fighting to promote Virginia jobs.
KEITH: In contrast, just two of the 10 Democratic candidates were outspent on TV by outside groups.
And an even starker partisan divide? More than 80 percent of all the Republican outside money comes from secret donors. On the Democratic side, less than 10 percent of the money is secret.
But, money isn't everything. Many political forecasters say they expect Democrats will maintain control of the Senate, something that a year ago seemed nearly impossible.
Cook Political Report's Jennifer Duffy says Republicans were hurt by a surprise retirement and a couple of controversial rape comments.
JENNIFER DUFFY: There is not a thing that millions of dollars of outside group advertising could have done to change those situations.
KEITH: Still, every one of these groups would likely say it was worth the effort and the money no matter the outcome.
Tamara Keith, NPR News, Washington.