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One and half billion dollars, that's how much outside groups spent on this election - on TV ads, robo calls and other political activity. The groups were created to take advantage of new rules in campaign finance law. And most of them supported conservative causes, but one day after the voting, their track record isn't looking so good, as NPR's Peter Overby reports.

PETER OVERBY, BYLINE: Last night was a rough one for Karl Rove. The GOP guru is the guiding light and chief fundraiser for the biggest outside spender - the twin groups American Crossroads and Crossroads GPS. Rove and other fundraisers had coaxed checks as large as $10 million out of their donors. The Crossroads operation had spent nearly $300 million against President Obama and other Democrats. Now, the White House race was slipping away, and Democrats were actually picking up Senate seats.

So, when Fox News analysts called Ohio for President Obama, Rove explained to anchor Chris Wallace that they'd done it wrong.

KARL ROVE: Even if they have made it on the basic of select precincts, I'd be very cautious about intruding in this process.

CHRIS WALLACE: Well, folks, so maybe not so fast.

OVERBY: President Obama carried Ohio, despite a huge investment by both Crossroads groups. As if that weren't enough, Rove became a punchline for newly elected Senator Angus King of Maine. King is an independent who had been attacked by Crossroads. He began his victory speech by saying one person deserved special praise and thanks.

SENATOR ANGUS KING: He helped bring the volunteers to their feet, tremendous boost to our fundraising, and I really don't think we could have achieved what we achieved tonight without him. I refer, of course, to Karl Rove.

OVERBY: Other winning Senate candidates teed off against pro-Republican groups. In Ohio, Democratic incumbent Sherrod Brown had faced extended attacks by Crossroads GPS, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and other groups that keep their donors secret. Here's Brown losing his voice on election night.

SENATOR SHERROD BROWN: This fall, we fought back against secretive, out-of-state forces that wanted to impose their will upon our state.

OVERBY: And it wasn't just Democrats. Nine-term California Republican Dan Lungren, chair of the House Administration Committee, is in a cliffhanger race still undecided. Unions, liberal groups and environmentalists spent nearly $5 million against him. Lungren is calling for a reform of the system.

SENATOR DAN LUNGREN: What I would like to do is have that money directed to the candidates and the parties, so that candidates and parties will be held responsible for the message.

OVERBY: But Fred Wertheimer, a longtime advocate for limits on political money, says that would just deregulate money flowing to the parties, and through them to the candidates.

FRED WERTHEIMER: What you will get with no contribution limits is a system of pure, legalized bribery.

OVERBY: And he points out that is why the Supreme Court, years ago, said the contribution limits are constitutional. Peter Overby, NPR News, Washington.

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