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Tuesday's election win for President Obama was also a win for his health care law, which Mitt Romney had pledged to roll back. Now comes the challenge of actually implementing that law, because while parts of it are in effect, the rest comes in 2014. States have a little more than a year now to set up exchanges where people buy health insurance or leave that work to the federal government. They have to decide which course they'll take by the end of next week. NPR's Julie Rovner reports.

JULIE ROVNER, BYLINE: President Obama's reelection and the retention of the Democratic majority in the Senate means the likelihood of a repeal of the health law has receded. So, what now?

ALAN WEIL: The law is here, and we should, at this point, expect it to still be here January 1st, 2014.

ROVNER: Alan Weil heads the nonpartisan National Academy for State Health Policy. And January 1st, 2014 is the date the major parts of the law - like the new insurance policies available to individuals and small businesses - are supposed to become available.

WEIL: The question is: What does implementation look like?

ROVNER: There's not a lot of time left to get ready. Many states and some key parts of the health care industry delayed gearing up much of this past year. They assumed either the Supreme Court would rule the law unconstitutional - which it didn't - or else Mitt Romney and a Republican Congress would be elected and make the law go away. That didn't happen, either. Now one of the law's big implementation deadlines is bearing down fast, says Weil.

WEIL: When it comes to insurance exchanges, states have days to decide whether they want to run their own or let the federal government do it for them.

ROVNER: Insurance exchanges are where people will go to shop for insurance coverage. They're also where people will get help paying for that coverage if they qualify for subsidies from the federal government. So far, only 13 states and Washington, D.C., have said they'll set up their own exchange. If states decide not to set up their own exchanges, the federal government will step in and do it instead. But federal officials haven't spelled out exactly how that will work. And opponents of the law, like Michael Cannon of the libertarian Cato Institute, say it's still not out of the legal woods yet. He says the problem goes back to those subsidies that will help people afford coverage starting in 2014.

MICHAEL CANNON: Without them, the law is not going to work. Health insurance markets are going to collapse right after health insurance premiums go sky high.

ROVNER: That's because, he contends, the law only makes those subsidies available through exchanges set up by states, and not by those run by the federal government. That's also the contention of a lawsuit filed by the state of Oklahoma. Other experts, including Alan Weil, disagree.

WEIL: The law is not beautifully crafted, but there are enough cross-references within the statute to make it clear that the subsidies are meant to be available to everyone based on their income. I don't think who runs the administrative apparatus is relevant, and I actually think the statute is quite clear in that regard.

ROVNER: Meaning the subsidies should be available whether the insurance exchanges are run by states or by the federal government. Cannon says the law also faces yet another hurdle.

CANNON: It's vulnerable because it was handed a defeat by the Supreme Court when the Supreme Court said that the Medicaid expansion is optional for states.

ROVNER: That led several Republican governors to vow they would not add millions of new low-income adults to their Medicaid programs, even though the federal government will pay most of the bill. But now public hospitals and others who serve those currently uninsured people are agitating to bring that federal money in. So those governors may find themselves under increasing pressure at home. Julie Rovner, NPR News, Washington.

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