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STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:

While voting problems in Tuesday's election were fewer than some people had feared, there were extremely long lines at many polling sites, so many that President Obama noted them in his victory speech.

PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA: Whether you voted for the very first time, or waited in line for a very long time - by the way, we have to fix that.

INSKEEP: Fixing that might not be so easy as NPR's Pam Fessler reports.

PAM FESSLER, BYLINE: Just minutes before President Obama spoke those words on Wednesday morning, the last voters were casting ballots in Miami-Dade County, Florida, 1:30 AM, six and a half hours after the polls were supposed to close. Earlier in the evening, 18-year-old Andre Murias stood in line outside the South Kendall Community Church in Miami-Dade and marveled at how long he had to wait to cast his first-ever ballot.

ANDRE MURIAS: It feels more like a tailgate than a voting. I think, next four years, if it's like this, we'll bring a grill, a cooler; 'cause this is ridiculous.

FESSLER: Ridiculous maybe, but there were similar scenes around the country. Tens of thousands of voters stuck it out. But some clearly don't, says Doug Chapin, an election expert with the University of Minnesota.

DOUG CHAPIN: Common sense tells us the longer the line, the more likely it is that people will abandon the line, or pull up to their polling place, see the long line and not even queue up in the first place.

FESSLER: Which is why some campaigns anxiously tweeted their supporters Tuesday night to stay in line, don't give up. Chapin says lines are long in part because cash-strapped localities have been consolidating polling sites.

CHAPIN: So you've got the same, or maybe slightly more voters, going to fewer places on Election Day.

FESSLER: He says one solution is to spend more on equipment and poll workers. But in the current fiscal climate, it's not clear where the money would come from. Trey Grayson is Kentucky's former Secretary Of State.

TREY GRAYSON: I remember four years ago, my in-laws, 'cause they called and yelled at me from lines, waited three hours to vote for the presidential race. And in that case, that particular county, clearly didn't have enough voting systems.

FESSLER: Grayson, who now runs Harvard's Institute of Politics, says scarce resources are only one problem. Long lines can be the result of a last-minute surge in voter registrations, or a very aggressive get-out-the-vote campaign, or simply logistics.

GRAYSON: Sometimes, it's space. You know, you just can't fit more voting systems in. The polling places have to be accessible now. So that minimizes the number of locations. And it's expensive to rent space, and especially just for one day.

FESSLER: And that's another thing. Big elections come only once every two or four years. People might be thinking about long lines this week, but it won't take long for the public and politicians to turn their attention elsewhere. Jane Platten runs elections in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, and has had her share of headaches over the years. But on Tuesday night, long lines weren't a problem.

JANE PLATTEN: I got home at about 3:15, after cleaning everything up. So it wasn't that bad.

FESSLER: She says one reason is that more than 40 percent of the county's voters had cast their ballots before Election Day. She notes that Ohio has 35 days of in-person early voting, and no-excuse absentee voting.

PLATTEN: I don't have to be in the hospital or out of town to vote early.

FESSLER: Which is the case in some other states. Platten says expanding early voting around the country would help. Although, as they well know in Ohio, which tried to limit early voting this year, that can be easier said than done. Pam Fessler, NPR News.

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