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There's a province in Afghanistan, at the very edge of the capital itself, that offers a portrait of the difficult effort to hand off the fighting to Afghan forces. NATO says it will withdraw its combat troops from Afghanistan in 2014, and that, of course, includes many American troops. Afghanistan's own forces are still being trained, and that's meant that in Logar Province, just south of Kabul, Afghanistan soldiers are successfully leading security operations in some areas; and in others, especially where insurgents are more active, American troops are still taking on the brunt of the fighting. NPR's Sean Carberry, recently embedded with U.S. troops in that province, and sent this report.

SEAN CARBERRY, BYLINE: Despite the snow starting to blanket the jagged mountaintops in Logar, the summer fighting season continues. The sprawling Forward Operating Base Shank is the main hub for coalition troops in this province. It's also one of the most heavily shelled bases in the country. U.S. forces were hoping for relief from the daily rocket fire after they killed two insurgents who were spotted by aerial surveillance in the vicinity of a rocket-launching site. Still, the rockets keep coming.

The main hot spot in the province is the Baraki Barak district. The joint NATO and Afghan base there is a five-minute helicopter flight to the west of Shank.

LIEUTENANT COLONEL WHIT WRIGHT: We've found Baraki Barak is fairly decisive to the province.

CARBERRY: Lt. Col. Whit Wright is commander of the 1-91 Cavalry Squadron, which is in charge of Baraki Barak, or BBK as it's known in military parlance. He says the district has historically been an insurgent stronghold.

WRIGHT: The fight in Baraki Barak is here to stay, that's why we're focusing so much on the capacity development, simply increasing the numbers of police, increasing the potency of the army forces that are here.

CARBERRY: John Alulis is a 2nd lieutenant in the 1-91 Calvary. He's leading an early morning foot patrol through frost-covered fields to the village of Wawakel, a mile or so to the south of the base.

LIEUTENANT JOHN ALULIS: As of right now, our mission is to kind of help the ANSF stabilize the district, so that come the final American withdrawal, they can take over.

CARBERRY: ANSF are the Afghan National Security Forces, army, police and intelligence. Despite the urgency of getting them trained and in the lead, there are none to be found on this patrol. That's in no small part because of the surge of insider attacks. At least 60 NATO personnel have been killed this year in confirmed cases of Afghan security forces turning their weapons on coalition troops.

The platoon pushes on across a small stream and through the soft dirt of barren fields. I asked Lieutenant Alulis if having Afghan forces on patrol with them would increase or decrease the level of threat they face.

ALULIS: It's all based on the personal relationships that they have with locals. Sometimes they can be unpopular because their fire discipline isn't the same as ours. They like to shoot first and maybe ask questions after that. But, they perform well and badly, all on the same patrol.

CARBERRY: The patrol spots some suspicious individuals and head over to investigate.

ALULIS: You guys post security in the tree line here we're just passing through right now, going into the east. Over.

CARBERRY: Another man approaches on a motorcycle.

(SOUNDBITE OF GUNFIRE)

CARBERRY: A soldier fires a warning shot to get the man to stop. In September, a suicide bomber killed two U.S. troops in BBK, so this patrol isn't taking any chances. The patrol moves on without further incident. Back at the base, Second Lieutenant Alex Panosian assesses the Afghan troops in BBK.

LIEUTENANT ALEX PANOSIAN: Tactically we've found that they are OK. Not great, but OK. But their planning-wise, it's very much reactive.

CARBERRY: So the U.S. troops are trying to get their Afghan counterparts to focus on planning operations in advance and conducting more intelligence-driven operations to target known insurgents. Lieutenant Colonel Wright explains that there are three Kandaks, the Afghan equivalent of a battalion, in Logar Province.

WRIGHT: Each of them is staggered in their development. Some have seen growth that is more advanced than others. That can be attributed to a lot of things, I think really decisive leadership, and then the man training and equipping.

CARBERRY: He says the 1st Kandak, which is in Baraki Barak, is not ready to handle security on its own.

WRIGHT: Number one, they've got the most kinetic environment, there's just more going on down here and their level of training is quite up to par with some of their counterparts. And then, lastly, their leadership is a bit further behind than some of the other ones.

CARBERRY: The other end of the spectrum in Logar province is at Combat Outpost McClain. Lieutenant Colonel Wright praises the Afghans there.

WRIGHT: They're about 90 percent of all operations are unilateral operating out of COP McClain. They've got some very good, decisive leadership, very independent leadership, and that, I think, has further accelerated their growth.

CARBERRY: COP McClain is the northernmost base in the province and sits next to the main highway that leads to Kabul. U.S. troops and those from the highly-praised 7th Kandak of the Afghan Army are the last line of defense to keep insurgents from pushing north to the capital.

LIEUTENANT FITZPATRICK: (Unintelligible) or do you plan on taking the men (unintelligible)

CARBERRY: Lt. Fitzpatrick is a platoon leader with the 1-91 and he's meeting with his Afghan counterpart. He's being briefed about the Afghan-led mission the following morning that his platoon will support. The next day, the U.S. platoon gathers and crosses the Friendship Wall, the somewhat ironically named barricade that divides COP McClain between the NATO side and the Afghan side.

The Afghans lead the patrol out of the base, and the U.S. platoon follows behind. According to Sergeant First Class Casey Mallette, that's something fairly new for these patrols.

SERGEANT CASEY MALLETTE: When we first got here, we would - every other man, it would be one U.S., one Afghan all the way back until we ran out of ANA soldiers, or whatever. We try not to do that anymore. We just can't keep eyes on them.

CARBERRY: Another change driven by the insider attacks.

MALLETTE: Now, we're back to this whole partnered and enabling task, so we try to let the ANA run it and we're just here to bail them out if they get in trouble.

CARBERRY: Despite all the praise of the 7th Kandak, the Afghan soldiers are still rough around the edges. For example, their impromptu traffic control point leaves a little to be desired among U.S. soldiers like Sergeant Mallette, ever watchful for VBIEDs or car bombs.

MALLETTE: If they're looking for a VBIED, and it drives up right here, it's going to kill a lot of people. I'm not trying to tell him how to do his job. I want to make sure he's thinking about this kind of stuff when he's out here.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN #1: All right. (Speaking foreign language)

CARBERRY: As he watches the Afghans conduct their traffic checkpoint, one question comes to Sergeant Mallette's mind.

MALLETTE: Would 7th Kandak be this successful if they were in BBK or Charkh?

CARBERRY: In other words, are these Afghan soldiers really as good as they seem, or are they just lucky to be in one of the safer areas of Logar? U.S. troops say that despite how well the Afghans here are doing, this area is too strategically important to hand over anytime soon. Sean Carberry, NPR News.

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