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From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Audie Cornish. A new adoption agreement is being finalized between the United States and Russia. Experts say it will make it costlier and more time consuming for Americans to adopt Russian children, but that it should also make those adoptions more satisfying for everyone involved. NPR's Corey Flintoff explains.

COREY FLINTOFF, BYLINE: There are those who say that foreigners should not be allowed to adopt Russian children and that Russia can care for its own. This is Pavel Astakhov from a speech before parliament last month in which he cited statistics that make the United States look like a hotbed of violence against children.

PAVEL ASTAKHOV: (Speaking foreign language)

FLINTOFF: Astakhov is President Vladimir Putin's commissioner for children's rights. He's attacking the idea that Russian orphans won't have a future unless Russia allows foreign adoptions, calling that claim hysterics and lies.

ASTAKHOV: (Speaking foreign language)

FLINTOFF: Despite this vehemence, Astakhov is one of the main authors of a new agreement that seeks to improve the safety and quality of adoptions of Russian children by Americans. Russian officials have long been critical of U.S. adoptions. Since 1999, more than 45,000 Russian children have been adopted into American homes, but critics focus on what they say are at least 19 cases worldwide where Russian children have been killed by their foreign adoptive parents.

Work on the current agreement gained momentum in 2010, when a Tennessee woman put her 7-year-old adopted son alone on a plane back to Russia with a note saying that he was mentally unstable. The new rules seek to avoid that kind of problem by requiring that adoptions be carried out only through certified agencies.

LINDA BROWNLEE: If we look at some of the adoptions that have made the news, they were done somewhat spontaneously, not with accredited agencies and not having the education they needed before they did it.

FLINTOFF: That's Linda Brownlee, executive director of the Adoption Center of Washington. The education she mentions consists of a mandatory preparation course that prospective parents will have to attend and pay for. That's a time and money commitment that many adoptive parents haven't been planning on. But Kathleen Strottman, who heads the Congressional Coalition on Adoption Institute in Washington, says she thinks the preparation courses will pay off.

KATHLEEN STROTTMAN: We found over the last several years that children who are institutionalized for long periods of time will have an adjustment period once they come here to the United States. And often, parents were finding they were unprepared for that and so, I think ultimately, parents will be glad that they did it.

FLINTOFF: U.S. adoptions of Russian children have fallen off in recent years, in part, the experts say, because of the uncertain U.S. economy. But Russian adoptions of Russian children haven't taken up the slack. The process and paperwork for Russians to adopt children are free of charge and many regions offer financial incentives for families to adopt.

Anatoly Vasilyev is the director of a children's home, the SOS Children's Village, on the outskirts of Moscow.

ANATOLY VASILYEV: (Speaking foreign language)

FLINTOFF: He says government incentives led to an upsurge in the number of children adopted by Russian families. But now, as many of those children reach the difficult age of puberty, about 1 in 10 of them is being returned to state orphanages. Vasilyev says more should be done to place children in caring families that aren't motivated by money, both in Russia and abroad.

Chuck Johnson is head of the National Council for Adoption in Alexandria, Virginia. He says Russia's political hostility toward foreign adoptions is understandable and that similar hostility would rear its head in the United States if foreigners began adopting American orphans.

CHUCK JOHNSON: Well, that's true in every country, and it's true in Russia. Even though they have more than 700,000 children in institutional care, even though the polls show that Russian citizens are not interested in adopting them, there's still this tendency to want to keep them there, even though it's in their best interest to be adopted.

FLINTOFF: Johnson points out that there are still elements of the agreement that need to be clarified in talks between the United States and Russia to be concluded this winter. Overall, he says he's optimistic that the agreement will end up being a good one, both for the children and the families that want them. Corey Flintoff, NPR News, Washington.

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