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RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:

Let's go now to Italy, where there's a clash going on over cats. Anyone who has visited Rome and its antique monuments has probably also seen the city's many stray cats that bask in the sun amid the ruins. One such place in the middle of the city is known as cat forum, thanks to a cat shelter next door. Now Italian archaeology officials have issued an eviction notice. And as NPR's Sylvia Poggioli reports, feline lovers from around the world are bracing for, yes, a cat fight.

SYLVIA POGGIOLI, BYLINE: The Roman ruins at Torre Argentina are an oasis in the middle of the city's chaotic traffic. The site is dotted with the broken columns of four ancient temples. It was here, at a theater designed as a meeting place for politicians, that Julius Caesar is said to have been stabbed to death by Brutus. But tourists and passers-by seem more fascinated by the site's contemporary residents.

LIA DEQUEL: People are interested, more in the cats than in monuments.

POGGIOLI: Lia Dequel is one the founders of the Torre Argentina Cat Shelter Association.

DEQUEL: The two together are fantastic, monuments and cats, because monuments come alive if you see a cat lying on it, or jumping from one pillar to another.

POGGIOLI: Now, two decades after the cat shelter was created, the National Archaeological Department says it's illegal and must go - although the cats can stay. Dequel is dismayed.

DEQUEL: If I leave these cats here, who sterilizes them? They wouldn't go to doctor and say hi, doctor sterilize me or vaccinate or be fed.

POGGIOLI: Volunteers care for some 200 cats at this site and also help vaccinate and neuter cats from other feline colonies in the city - 27,000 in the last decade, helping to control the city's cat population. They also find homes for an average 125 cats a year.

The shelter's premises are located in an underground storage area excavated under the street in the foundations of a temple. When we enter, we see a couple of clean, well-lit rooms lined with cages for sick cats. A large feline is sleeping in a basket on top of a table.

ANDY DE PAOLI: That's Gottardo. He's a bit of a bully with other cats.

POGGIOLI: American volunteer Andy de Paoli, says Rome is known for its gattare - the cat ladies who carry pots of pasta to feed stray cats. One of the best known was the actress Anna Magnani who lived near this site. But De Paoli says cat ladies were not always so popular, especially during the Middle Ages.

PAOLI: Cats were associated with the devil and witchcraft. So very often, when a witch were burned, the cat was burned along with them. It wasn't very safe for a woman to be seen feeding a cat.

POGGIOLI: But in more recent times, a decree of the Rome city council went so far as to recognize cats as part of the city's bio-cultural heritage. After all, many say that cats lived here before Romans.

Rome's superintendent for culture, Umberto Broccoli, is trying to mediate between the shelter and national archaeological officials. The city council's decree, he says, ensures the felines cannot be evicted.

UMBERTO BROCCOLI: (Through Translator) As an institution, the cats of Rome are older than the marble columns and pediments. Therefore, the feline colony will not be moved.

POGGIOLI: Italy is rich in archaeological treasures but places like Pompeii, Nero's Golden House and the Coliseum are cracking and crumbling, due to lack of funds, neglect and also corruption.

Italy is also a country where illegal construction is pervasive. It's odd, therefore, that authorities are focusing their efforts on a cat shelter that's become a tourist attraction and survives thanks to donations from all over the world.

But the cat ladies are fighting back. They've posted a petition to the culture ministry on their website and already have gathered 6,500 signatures. And even this dog lover can't help but side with the caretakers of the cats of Rome.

Sylvia Poggioli, NPR News, Rome.

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