RACHEL MARTIN, HOST:
Now, part of what makes the already difficult budget negotiations even tougher to resolve is a set of three rules in the House of Representatives. Now, these are not official regulations, but Republican leaders have adopted these rules as a kind of new governing philosophy in the House. And as NPR's David Welna reports, the rules have left Speaker Boehner little room to maneuver.
DAVID WELNA, BYLINE: According to President Obama, keeping tax rates unchanged for the bottom 98 percent of taxpayers come January 1st should be simple. Mr. Obama told a group of factory workers on Friday that the Senate has already passed a bill freezing all but the top two rates of the Bush-era tax cuts.
PRESIDENT BARACK OBAMA: And if we can just get a few House Republicans on board, we can pass the bill in the House, it will land on my desk, and I am ready. I have got a bunch of pens ready to sign this bill. I'm ready to sign.
(SOUNDBITE OF CHEERING)
OBAMA: I'm ready to sign.
WELNA: But that Senate bill has been stymied by the House GOP leadership's deference to what's known as the majority of the majority. Under this de facto rule, no bill is brought up for a vote when Republicans control the House unless a majority of their caucus supports it. So, while there may well be enough Republicans willing to break ranks and vote with Democrats to pass that Senate bill, Deputy GOP House Whip Tom Cole says that's just not going to happen.
REPRESENTATIVE TOM COLE: You're not going to come up here and be able to put together a deal with 170 Democrats and 40 Republicans - that's just not in the cards.
WELNA: Longtime Congress watcher Norm Ornstein of the American Enterprise Institute says the majority of the majority rule is a major reason why bills passed on a bipartisan basis in the Senate don't come up in the House.
NORM ORNSTEIN: We've got the Republicans now as a parliamentary-style minority. In a parliamentary system, it is just a matter of course that the parties unite together in opposition to the other side. But you can't function that way with divided government.
WELNA: With the rise of the Tea Party came another House GOP rule: any increase in the debt ceiling - and one has to happen very soon - must be matched by an equal decrease in spending. House Speaker John Boehner's insistence on such a dollar-for-dollar deal led to last year's debt ceiling crisis. Last week, he said he'll do the same this time.
REPRESENTATIVE JOHN BOEHNER: I continue to believe that any increase in the debt limit has to be accompanied by spending reductions that meet or exceed it.
WELNA: According to Congress-watcher Ornstein, when Boehner became speaker nearly two years ago, he privately warned fellow Republicans they'd have to make some concessions as the governing party, especially when it came to raising the debt ceiling. Boehner's new rule, Ornstein says, is...
ORNSTEIN: A very real change from where he had been initially, and partly reflecting, I think, the reality of his leadership, which is he's got to run a little faster to get out in front of his mob.
WELNA: The third rule House Republicans live by is no new taxes. After President Obama's re-election, Boehner softened that rule a bit, although not enough to accommodate the tax rate hikes on the wealthy the president seeks. Here's Boehner Friday:
BOEHNER: We're willing to put revenues on the table, but revenues that come from closing loopholes, getting rid of special interest deductions and not raising rates.
WELNA: Some of the speaker's fellow House Republicans are now saying there's nothing in this rule that keeps them from extending tax cuts for most people now rather than risk all those cuts expiring January 1st. One such Republican is Deputy Whip Cole.
COLE: I don't think in this situation nailing down the Bush tax cuts and making them permanent for 98 percent is somehow a violation.
WELNA: All three rules, says Stanford political scientist Bruce Cain, have left Boehner on the hot seat.
BRUCE CAIN: Because he clearly can't adhere to these rules and cut a deal with Obama, but at the same time, if he breaks these rules he could be undermining his position as leader. So, he's in a very difficult position.
WELNA: If there's to be a deal, Cain says, Boehner may well have to break at least one of his rules. David Welna, NPR News, the Capitol.