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Climate change talks in Doha were supposed to wrap up today, but diplomats are working overtime to hammer out some sort of deal. This is the 18th annual round of United Nations climate talks, and expectations for this meeting are low, as nations all over the world begin a lengthy process of negotiating one treaty they can all agree on.

NPR's Richard Harris reports.

RICHARD HARRIS, BYLINE: Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases continue to build up rapidly in the Earth's atmosphere, but that doesn't alter the pace of the United Nations, which is always struggling to find consensus among nearly 200 nations with very different needs and interests.

Take for example the question of how rich countries should help poor countries respond to climate-related disasters. Gambian diplomat Pa Ousman Jarju argued this point on behalf of the world's least developed nations.

PA OUSMAN JARJU: There must be a mechanism of really addressing this issue. We have heard in the news that in the United States they are mobilizing over $80 billion for Hurricane Sandy.

HARRIS: Many nations simply don't have the resources to cope with disasters of that magnitude. So the world's poor countries say there should be a special fund created to deal with losses and damage caused by typhoons and droughts and so on. No big surprise, the countries that would be expected to fill those coffers are not so interested in creating a new fund. Jennifer Morgan is with the World Resources Institute.

JENNIFER MORGAN: This basically would set up a liability structure, in a way, of who's liable for climate change. And while I think that's a very important question for people to answer, I don't think the world's ready for that yet.

HARRIS: In fact, wealthy nations are feeling a bit broke and have shown little interest in ramping up their donations to existing aid funds. At the meeting in Copenhagen three years ago, these countries agreed to ramp up climate-related funding to $100 billion a year by 2020. But there's no agreement about how to do that.

MORGAN: There's no bridge, no pathway between now and the 100 billion number. And so one of the real crunch issues here, which I think will determine whether we will get out of the building with an agreement or not, is whether developed countries are ready to at least say that they're going to match what they've been providing thus far.

HARRIS: That's been $30 billion for the past three years. Celine Chaveriat from the aid group Oxfam says it's not just an issue of money, it's a matter of keeping to one's commitments.

CELINE CHAVERIAT: And so rich countries had this opportunity to build trust here in Doha, and they're completely failing.

HARRIS: Money isn't the only complication. Diplomats are also trying to come up with a single climate treaty that will guide all nations, starting in the year 2020. Right now it's a hodgepodge. That includes the Kyoto treaty, which was negotiated in 1997 but by now only engages a small number of nations.

The hope is that a new pact will include much stronger pledges for reducing carbon emissions. Jennifer Morgan says current pledges, made at the talks in Copenhagen three years ago, are still far short of what's needed to stabilize the planet's atmosphere.

MORGAN: There's no new ambition since Copenhagen, and that's very worrying.

HARRIS: This is a matter of survival for small island nations, which could disappear under the waves in the next century if sea levels continue to rise. But frustrating as the United Nations processes is to Tony deBrum, who represents the small-island states, he isn't about to give up on these cumbersome U.N. talks.

TONY DEBRUM: The engagement that this platform affords small countries is essential to our survival because if we don't have this platform, what do we have?

HARRIS: That's no doubt on the minds of many negotiators as they confront another very late night of talks, which will at best yield very modest results. Richard Harris, NPR News.

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