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President Obama's re-election has put immigration reform back on the national agenda. Members of both parties have since called for legislation to address the large number of illegal immigrants now in the U.S. This week, NPR is exploring some of the key issues in the debate. Today a report on several states that have passed immigration laws in recent years, at times running afoul of the U.S. Constitution. NPR's Debbie Elliott has that story.

DEBBIE ELLIOTT, BYLINE: Inside a modest storefront in Loxley, Alabama, 18-year-old Maria Lola Melisio shows me around her mom's market.

MARIA LOLA MELISIO: This is some Mexican spices, and those back there is like the leaves where you make your tamales. You roll them up in that.

ELLIOTT: Melisio has long dark curls and is wearing a houndstooth scarf in support of the Alabama Crimson Tide. She snuck into the U.S. from Mexico with her mother when she was 7 years old. She still has a scar on her back from crawling under the border fence. It's a story she's kept secret until now.

MELISIO: You know, we shouldn't have to be embarrassed. It's really not my fault that, you know, I came here illegally. I didn't really know anything. And some people just come here for a better life and so we could have a future.

ELLIOTT: Now, Melisio finds herself caught between state and federal immigration policy. Other Hispanic-owned stores in this part of south Alabama closed soon after the state passed what is considered to be the toughest immigration law in the country last year. And farmers complained they couldn't find enough migrant workers to harvest their crops.

Like Arizona, Alabama's law calls for police to detain suspects on a reasonable suspicion that they are in the country illegally. But Alabama went further, making it a crime for undocumented to conduct any matter of business, whether private or with government agencies. It also required schools to collect information on the immigration status of enrolling students and their parents. Melisio dropped out of 11th grade when the law passed. Even though it was intended to apply only to new students, her mother was afraid to send her to class.

MELISIO: She thought that, you know, the police would come to school and try to find out who was illegal, and they might send me back. So she was scared, and she just didn't want me to go.

ELLIOTT: Even after courts struck down Alabama's school provision, Melisio says she was ashamed to return. Now, she needs that high school diploma to qualify under President's Obama's policy that allows young, illegal immigrants to avoid deportation if they go to college or work. Several rights advocates say laws like Alabama's have created a host of problems, but haven't really addressed the question of illegal immigration. Attorney Tomas Lopez is with the Southern Poverty Law Center, one of several groups that have sued to stop the state laws.

TOMAS LOPEZ: They do infinitely more harm than good. And this kind of response, this, you know, let's deal first with driving people out is not the way to deal with the really complicated questions that, you know, are sort of tied up in immigration policy.

ELLIOTT: Supporters insist the laws are working. Republican State Senator Scott Beason is a sponsor of Alabama's immigration crackdown.

STATE SENATOR SCOTT BEASON: I think we did what we intended to do. We did see apparently thousands of illegal aliens leave the state. It did open up jobs for a number of Alabamians, which is - which was really our main goal.

ELLIOTT: Beason acknowledges he's become a lightning rod in the debate and has experienced pushback from fellow Republicans who complain the law has made it more difficult to do business in the state.

BEASON: There are a lot of business interests who like to be able to have that never-ending flow of illegal labor. And that's been the tug of war within the Republican establishment for a while.

ELLIOTT: Beason says he's surprised to now hear national Republican leaders embrace a softer approach in an appeal to Latino voters.

BEASON: It seems to me more like petty pandering is what they're trying to do instead of telling people this is why because we want to have better jobs, we want to have opportunity. And to do that, we cannot just have completely open borders with millions of people streaming into the country. Let's have that argument.

ELLIOTT: At least 10 states have passed these new immigration rules. The most comprehensive statutes coming from Alabama, Arizona, Georgia and South Carolina. All have the same underlying goal.

KRIS KOBACH: The concept of attrition through enforcement.

ELLIOTT: Kansas Secretary of State Kris Kobach is a key architect of the immigration laws.

KOBACH: If state and local government can add their shoulders to the wheel and help to increase the total amount of enforcement, that will change the cost-benefit analysis of your typical illegal alien who says, you know what, it's getting harder for me to work illegally in the United States. It's getting harder for me to get these public benefits, and I'm going to go home.

ELLIOTT: But courts have ruled states have only a limited role to play, that the Constitution leaves immigration policy to the federal government. What the states can still do is mandate that employers use the national E-Verify system to check workers' Social Security numbers, authorize police to detain and check the immigration status of suspects and deny public benefits to undocumented residents. Kobach says even as the debate moves to Washington, D.C., he'll continue to work with states and local governments to find new avenues to curtail illegal immigration.

KOBACH: The other factor we have to remember here is that the fiscal burden of illegal immigration falls overwhelmingly on the states. Indeed, illegal immigration can be said to be the ultimate unfunded mandate.

ELLIOTT: At Jackson Hospital in Montgomery, Alabama, Dr. Randy Brinson says emergency rooms like this one are the frontlines when it comes to the public cost of illegal immigration. He says they treat a lot of migrant workers.

DR. RANDY BRINSON: When they come to the emergency room, we don't check their immigration status. We know this here, it's a person that's sick. So they come in, and basically, the reality is that we take care of them. We very rarely get compensated for their care.

ELLIOTT: Brinson says it's a cost that often ends up being passed along to local governments. Brinson is president of the Christian Coalition of Alabama. He thinks the immigration here has missed the point and harmed the state's already battered image when it comes to civil rights.

BRINSON: It had the negative effect that we were against immigration, we were against Hispanics in particular and that we weren't concerned with the plight of the - of illegal immigrants in our country.

ELLIOTT: Brinson says the solution is creating a path to citizenship and legitimate work.

BRINSON: Not in the underground, but in the open light and that they're going to be equally housed, they're going to have equal, legitimate wages, their families are going to have legitimate health care benefits so that they don't become a burden on the state government or the federal government.

ELLIOTT: Brinson says as both parties maneuver to attract Latino voters, the social costs of immigration policy shouldn't get lost in the politics. Debbie Elliott, NPR News.

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