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STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:

Apparently killing six people doing vaccinations for polio in Pakistan was not enough for gunmen in that country. The six workers, most of them women, were murdered yesterday as they went house to house. Today we're told gunmen staged more attacks on health workers. Pakistan is one of three countries in the world where there's been a resurgence of polio. NPR's Dina Temple-Raston reports from Islamabad.

DINA TEMPLE-RASTON, BYLINE: A conference on the polio vaccine program in Pakistan opened today at a big hotel in Islamabad. It was supposed to be a cause for celebration. After seeing more than 198 cases of polio here last year, this year's total was shaping up to be just 57. But as hotel workers set up for the meeting, there was a definite pall over the room. News that six health workers helping administer the vaccines in cities around the country had been killed put a damper on things.

DR. ATAK BOSON: This is a very noble cause for everybody.

TEMPLE-RASTON: Dr. Atak Boson said no one was expecting this kind of violent incident. He's the national coordinator for the polio vaccine program in Pakistan.

BOSON: Still we don't know the real cause of the killing.

TEMPLE-RASTON: But there are suspicions. The four women who were killed in Karachi were gunned down in Pashtun neighborhoods, where members of the Pakistani Taliban are thought to be hiding. The Taliban maintains that Western vaccine programs are a plot against Muslims, that vaccines render children infertile. It didn't help that the CIA used the cover of an immunization program to spy on Osama bin Laden in Abbottabad.

The shootings yesterday all happened within an hour of each other. As the volunteers were going house-to-house, masked gunmen on motorbikes opened fire. The same thing had happened in Peshawar, in northwestern Pakistan. There a 17-year-old female student volunteer and a male health worker were killed.

DR. MALIK: It's really a shock in a society like Pakistan, where women are usually not targeted like this one. That's the biggest shock to me, that how we are moving in certain(ph) direction, that now the women are also going to be targeted, because these are the soft targets.

TEMPLE-RASTON: That's Dr. Malik. He used to run polio vaccine programs for the government. He asked that we use only use his last name so he could be more candid.

MALIK: If both the female members are going to be targeted, it's going to have definite repercussions on the program in the long run.

TEMPLE-RASTON: Women, he explains, are vital to the vaccine program. They make up about 80 percent of the 90,000 health workers trained to administer the oral vaccine. They need to go into houses and talk to women, something culturally men can't do. Malik said if the women health workers felt their lives were in danger, they might not participate.

Dr. Boson, the coordinator of the Pakistan polio vaccine program, said as regrettable as the killings are, the government will not be deterred.

BOSON: They can't sabotage this activity. We are very committed to continue this effort.

TEMPLE-RASTON: After the polio conference in Islamabad opened, there was news of three more attacks today against health workers. The government of Sindh Province, where Karachi is located, has suspended the vaccine program until further notice.

Dina Temple-Raston, NPR News, Islamabad.

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