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When something like Newtown happens, clergy are invariably asked: If God is all-knowing, all-powerful and benevolent, why allow such suffering? There's even a word for it: theodicy. It means justifying God's goodness despite the existence of evil. From Austin, Texas, NPR's John Burnett caught up with several faith leaders to find out how they do just that.
JOHN BURNETT, BYLINE: I met Steven Folberg, senior rabbi at Congregation Beth Israel here in Austin, Texas, on his front porch on a balmy December day. He was asked to please explain the nature of God in light of the slaughter of innocents in Connecticut. No small assignment.
RABBI STEVEN FOLBERG: I saw a bumper sticker once that said: God is good, evil is real, and God is all powerful. Pick two. The idea was to say that if one accepts those three propositions as true, then they are logically inconsistent. And how do you wiggle your way out of that issue?
BURNETT: You cannot wiggle your way out, says the Texas rabbi. You have to admit that we live in a world that is, by turns, beautiful and shattered.
FOLBERG: I draw instruction from that aspect of my own tradition that says, well, I have a responsibility as a human being, and in my case as a Jew, to look at what's broken in the world, to mend it and then using old Jewish language, to be a partner with God in completing the work of creation which is incomplete.
FATHER JAMES MARTIN: My name is Father James Martin. I'm a Jesuit priest and contributing editor at America magazine in New York City. For the Christian, suffering, violence and death are never the last word. We believe in eternal life. It does give people hope for those who were killed, for those who die, that they will be in God's eternal rest. And it also gives us the hope that we will meet them again. So suffering and death are not the only part of the story, and the resurrection shows us this.
BURNETT: Moreover, Father Martin says, God is not a theological abstraction. He is present in our suffering. He understands pain.
MARTIN: And I think you have to remember also that God's own son died a violent death. Jesus died horribly. So - but there is no easy answer. There is no adequate answer to this question which theologians call the mystery of evil.
BURNETT: Part of the paradox of theodicy is rooted in our very nature, says Imam Jihad Turk. He's religious adviser at the Islamic Center of Southern California and president of Bayan Claremont Islamic graduate school.
IMAM JIHAD: Theologically, we would look at it from the point of view that part of what makes us unique as a creation of God is that we have free will. And for free will to be meaningful, we have the choice between good and evil. And if we only had the choice to do good then it wouldn't be a meaningful free will.
BURNETT: Choosing to do evil. In August, an alleged white supremacist walked into the Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisconsin, and randomly murdered six people. It's believed the assailant mistook Sikhs for Muslims. One of the three persons wounded is the wife of Balhair Dulai, director of the board of trustees at the temple. Dulai believes what the killers who did mayhem in his temple and in Sandy Hook School had in common was that they dwelled in darkness.
BALHAIR DULAI: Evil comes when there is no God. And when there is no God's love, the conscience allow evil to creep in. When evil creeps in, then these things tend to happen.
BURNETT: Why does a good God allow evil? What these four faith leaders agree on is this: Beware of anyone who says he or she has the answer. John Burnett, NPR News, Austin.
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