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This is WEEKEND EDITION from NPR News. I'm Scott Simon. Russian lawmakers have approved a measure that would bar Americans from adopting Russian children. The move comes in retaliation for a U.S. law that seeks to, quote, "name and shame" Russian officials who violate human rights. President Vladimir Putin has voiced support for the adoption ban, but it's not clear whether he'll actually sign a measure that has potential pitfalls. NPR's Corey Flintoff reports from Moscow.

COREY FLINTOFF, BYLINE: As the Duma, the lower house of Russia's parliament, prepared for the final vote on the adoption ban, opponents of the measure stood in the sub-zero cold outside holding picket signs. Milana Minayeva's sign said: Don't deprive children of their lives.

MILANA MINAYEVA: Because I think this upcoming law is outrageous and I think it's absolutely impossible to make children, which already don't have help and parents and with nothing, not to allow them to have any future at all whatsoever.

FLINTOFF: Minayeva is a TV producer, rather than an adoption activist, but she echoes the stance of many critics, who say that orphans and adoptive parents should not be used as pawns in a political game. But the process of retaliation in the Duma taps into some deep and longstanding resentments on the part of Russian officials. President Putin let some of that anger show in his yearly press conference this week. The Russian leader charged that the United States has denied Russian officials the chance to monitor the welfare of Russian adoptees in American families.

PRESIDENT VLADIMIR PUTIN: (Russian spoken)

FLINTOFF: Do you think this is normal, Putin demanded. How can it be normal when you're humiliated? Do you like it? Are you a masochist? They shouldn't humiliate our country. For many Russian officials, the mere fact that so many Russian children have been adopted by foreigners is a humiliation, an admission that Russia is not able or willing to take care of its own children. Although Americans have adopted more than 45,000 Russian children since the fall of the Soviet Union, some Russian officials prefer to dwell on the fewer than two dozen cases where adopted children have been mistreated or even killed. But the anti-adoption provision is only one part of the new Russian legislation. The entire package is designed as retaliation for an American trade law that President Obama signed earlier this month. It contains a provision aimed at what many in the U.S. Congress consider to be a shocking human rights violation - the death of a Russian lawyer named Sergei Magnitsky. Human rights groups contend that Magnitsky was arrested, tortured and denied medical treatment for nearly a year after exposing a massive tax fraud by Russian officials. He died in prison in 2009, at the age of 37. The Magnitsky legislation calls for sanctions against dozens of Russian officials who were allegedly involved in that case. Russian officials from Putin on down say that provision is interference in Russia's internal affairs. America criticizes Russia, they say, while the United States commits violations of its own, from Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq to Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. This is Alexei Pushkov, chairman of the parliamentary committee on foreign affairs.

ALEXEI PUSHKOV: If the Magnitsky Law stipulates that it is about human rights, then we say, OK, Russian kids in the U.S. also have human rights, and Russia has a right to adopt a law that will defend those human rights.

FLINTOFF: But adoption advocates in Russia say the ban would violate international treaties, including the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Boris Altshuler is director of the Rights of the Child NGO in Moscow. He says the real victims will be children.

BORIS ALTSHULER: Because if thousands of children will not go to the USA, then they will be locked in Russian institutions.

FLINTOFF: Altshuler says the ban would hit hardest at Russian orphans with mental or physical disabilities, because American families have historically been more willing to take such children. So far, President Putin has been non-committal about whether he would sign the new measure. At his news conference, he noted that the existing adoption agreement with the United States requires a year's notice before either country can withdraw. He also acknowledged that the parliament must consider an online petition in which more than 100,000 Russians asked that the adoption ban be rejected. Corey Flintoff, NPR News, Moscow.

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