RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:
To toast the holiday season, MORNING EDITION has been raising a glass to Drink Week. Over the last few days, we've undertaken a serious study of some of our favorite adult beverages.
DAVID GREENE, HOST:
That's right. Our work duties have included sipping rye whiskey and cocktails. And today it's gin, a clear alcohol flavored primarily with juniper berries. And unlike a good martini, the story of gin is not exactly smooth.
MONTAGNE: Its past is long, complex and even sordid - tantalizing material for Richard Barnett's newly published "The Book of Gin: A Spirited History from Alchemist Stills and Colonial Outposts to Gin Palaces, Bathtub Gin and Artisanal Cocktails." Richard Barnett joins us from London to talk about the book.
Welcome, and quite a title.
RICHARD BARNETT: Well, thank you very much for having me. Yes, it's quite a long title, but we have a very long and wonderful global history to deal with.
MONTAGNE: Well, initially, gin was conceived of as more of a medicine than a beverage for pleasure.
BARNETT: Absolutely. In fact, the whole idea of distilling spirits really comes out of the tradition of, strangely enough, out of the Arabic alchemy. If you went to Baghdad, of all places, in the eighth or ninth centuries, you'd have found an absolutely thriving culture of research, people trying to investigate the nature of the universe and study it in different ways. Distillation became a really powerful technique for doing that. And a lot of the early alchemists think that when you distill wine or beer or spirits in some kind of way, what you end up with is almost the human life force. You get people calling it aqua vitae, the water of life. And then when this liquor starts to be mixed with juniper berries - juniper has had a very long medical history, especially for the problems of childbearing. So you have these very potent medicinal substances coming together in gin. And for a long time, as you rightfully say, it was thought of as medicine.
MONTAGNE: How is it that gin, particularly in England of the 1700s, developed such a nasty reputation?
BARNETT: Well, it all comes down to high politics. In 1689 in this country, we have what's called the Glorious Revolution: The old Catholic King James II is booted out and a Protestant king - William of Orange, who's Dutch - is brought in. Now, when William of Orange comes to the throne, he knows that he's dependent upon a whole lot of aristocratic supporters. Now, these people, in turn, are dependent for their income on the massive agricultural estates they've got. So William knows that if he wants to keep his throne, what he has to do is keep the price of grain nice and high. Now, one of the first ways he tries to do this is to deregulate British distilling. Pretty much anybody can start distilling. It opens up a new market for grain. Gin suddenly becomes incredibly cheap. Anybody can make it, probably anybody can afford it, and this is what starts to push its reputation down.
MONTAGNE: And this becomes what has been called the gin craze.
BARNETT: Absolutely. This is a period between about 1720 and 1750. There's a huge amount of public disquiet, not only about the low price of gin, but the social effects that this is having. Probably the most famous representation of this is the great English artist William Hogarth produces an engraving called "Gin Lane," which is a terrible image of the social breakdown that's being caused by gin.
MONTAGNE: Right. It's an image of people basically falling about - I mean, a woman dropping her baby as she flops backwards, half-naked, obviously drunk. A guy looking like a crack addict, only he's probably a gin addict.
BARNETT: In fact, if you wanted a very good modern parallel for the way that gin was regarded in the 18th century, crack is probably a very, very good one.
MONTAGNE: What finally brought gin to respectability?
BARNETT: I think it's a number of things. Firstly, we should say it's a very important American invention. Possibly one of the great American cultural contributions to the world is the invention of the cocktail. Through the 19th century, first of all, Americans and then Europeans get the habit of drinking spirits mixed up with the whole happy hour of other things: bitters and tonics and all sorts of things. And that helps to make gin more respectable. It's just one more ingredient in the cocktail cabinet.
I think the second thing that helps to make gin more respectable is the growth of the gin and tonic. If you imagine colonists from Europe going out to the tropics in the 19th century, one of the biggest problems they face is malaria - terrible, terrible disease, kills many thousands of Europeans, and of course many hundreds of thousands of Africans in this period. Now, at the time, there's only one effective treatment, and that's a drug which in Britain is called quinine. I think in the U.S. you call it quinine. It's derived from the bark of a tree that grows in South America.
Now, the trouble with quinine is it's incredibly bitter. So in the 19th century, lots of companies start producing more palatable ways of taking your daily quinine. This is tonic water. Now, British colonists in the late 19th century discover that tonic water and gin sort of complement one other. They've both got this rather sort of refreshing botanical kind of flavor. So, the British start drinking the gin and tonic and making it the distinctive drink of British colonials. And they bring this habit back to Britain in the - I suppose in the 20th century. So those are the two things that start to make gin a much more respectable prospect.
MONTAGNE: When we're talking about gin cocktails, you encountered - while writing these books - some interesting cocktails, like pink gin, and something also going by the name Kublai Khan No. 2. Tell us about that. What would we be drinking if we ordered those up?
BARNETT: Well, pink gin, again, speaks to this rather wonderful global history that gin has. Pink gin is a combination of gin and bitters. Now, bitters were invented essentially in the 18th century as a kind of remedy for seasickness. So, again, you've got this idea of sort of global trades and exchange, people going all around the world taking gin with them and then using it to sort of mix up their own home remedies. And pink gin became the classic drink of the British Royal Navy.
Now, the Kublai Khan No. 2 is a rather different prospect. Whether this was actually made is not something I think we're certain of. We find this in the writings of the great occultist, Aleister Crowley. Crowley tells us in his writings that he would go to a certain pub in Bloomsbury in London and order what he called a Kublai Kahn No. 2, which he tells us was a mixture of gin and laudanum. Now, laudanum is essentially the earliest version of a sort of general painkiller. And it's opium - so, not far off heroin - dissolved in sherry. So if you imagine a kind of heroin martini, this is what Crowley tells us he was drinking.
MONTAGNE: A heroin martini - which, of course, makes something that came into being or got its name a few years later during America's Prohibition sound not too bad, which was bathtub gin, was famous as a drink of Prohibition.
BARNETT: In the U.S., I think, Prohibition itself has a strange and rather paradoxical role in making gin a more respected and a more democratic kind of drink. If you think about the speakeasy, although it's an illegal space, it's a very democratic space. The speakeasy is one of the first places in Western culture where you get men and women drinking together for the same time. You get social boundaries being crossed. You even - very rarely at this time in American culture - get racial boundaries being crossed, as well. So, the speakeasy starts to help to make the cocktail sort of respectable prospects, as it were.
MONTAGNE: Richard Barnett is the author of "The Book of Gin." Thank you very much for joining us.
BARNETT: It's been a great pleasure. Thank you for having me.
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MONTAGNE: Monday, of course, is New Year's Eve. So we're going to be talking on Monday about - what else - champagne.