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On the first Friday of the year, it's MORNING EDITION from NPR News. I'm Steve Inskeep.
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And I'm David Greene. Good morning. We have heard on this program about cases of blasphemy - people accused of insulting or offending religious figures. There have been cases in Muslim countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan. It turns out seven European countries with Christian traditions also have laws on their books making blasphemy a crime.
The laws are generally not enforced, but in Greece, since the economic crisis hit nationalists have called for charges against people accused of insulting God or the Greek Orthodox Church. They've put a lot of pressure on prosecutors. Joanna Kakissis reports on two cases that are set to go to trial this year.
(SOUNDBITE OF CHANTING)
JOANNA KAKISSIS, BYLINE: Until he died in 1994, a Greek monk named Elder Paisios told Greeks to turn to faith in hard times. In this old recording, he's chanting at a church service. Elder Paisios is said to have predicted the economic crisis and a triumphant return of a Greek empire. With unemployment now at Great Depression levels, many Greeks see him as a prophet. But that bothers Philippos Loizos, a 27-year-old scientist.
PHILIPPOS LOIZOS: (Through translator) It seems like every time there's a crisis in Greece, there's a search for saviors. We wait for a sign from God or an enlightened leader. Greeks haven't figured out how to problem-solve, so we wait for someone else to save us.
KAKISSIS: Loizos set up a Facebook page in 2011, arguing that Elder Paisios was xenophobic and close-minded. He also mocked the monk's name - Paisios became Pastitsios, like the Greek pasta dish. He even photoshopped a slice of pastitsio onto the monk's face.
LOIZOS: (Through translator) I got a lot of postings and messages through the page. Most were against what I was doing, and I got threatened and called names. But some people said bravo, we're with you.
KAKISSIS: In September of 2012, police arrested Loizos. He was charged with blasphemy, which carries up to six months in prison. Many Greeks see his case as a theocratic stifling of free speech. It was the first of two blasphemy arrests in 2012. In the years before the crisis, Greece rarely invoked the law, a version of which has been in the penal code since the 1850s.
Back then, many other European countries had blasphemy laws because God was seen as determining the community's destiny, says David Nash, a history professor at Oxford Brookes University in Great Britain.
DAVID NASH: If you go back to the origins of blasphemy laws in Medieval times, they're very much about protecting the community.
KAKISSIS: But in the 20th century, Nash says, most European countries took action to separate church and state and have phased out blasphemy laws. In Greece, the Orthodox Church remains powerful but does not get involved with the law, says Haris Konidaris, a spokesman for Archbishop Ieronymos of Greece.
HARIS KONIDARIS: The church or the archbishop cannot act as a persecutor or as an investigator. That's not the business of the church or the archbishop.
KAKISSIS: Christian activists have pushed prosecutors to make blasphemy arrests in the past. But in the last year, the neo-fascist Golden Dawn party has also called for arrests during speeches in Parliament. Yannis Ktistakis, a human-rights attorney, says the blasphemy law fits into their agenda.
YANNIS KTISTAKIS: It's the political agenda of the nationalists. They think that now is the time to call all the Greeks to think about their special identity.
(SOUNDBITE OF PROTEST)
KAKISSIS: On the pretext of defending Greek identity and the Greek Orthodox faith, a Golden Dawn parliamentary deputy screamed obscenities as he led a mob that stormed a controversial play this October. This YouTube video shows the mob, which includes bearded priests throwing rocks at those attending the Greek production of "Corpus Christi," the Terrence McNally play that portrays Jesus and his apostles as gay men in Texas.
The director, Laertis Vassiliou, says it was like being attacked by a Christian Taliban.
LAERTIS VASSILIOU: For two months they were threatening our lives. Every day, every day there were letters saying to us you will burn to hell. They said to my parents that we will bring your son in a box - cut in pieces and in a box.
KAKISSIS: Archbishop Ieronymos strongly condemned the violence, though he says the play and the Elder Paisios Facebook parody by Philippos Loizos are blasphemous. The state has charged Vassiliou and his cast under the blasphemy law but has dropped the charge against Loizos. He still faces trial this year for the separate charge of insulting religion - which carries up to two years in prison. For NPR News, I'm Joanna Kakissis in Athens.