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As of this month, abortion has been legal in the United States for 40 years. But across the country, states are working hard to restrict the procedure. Over the holidays, with little fanfare, two Republican governors signed new abortion bills into law. Both Virginia and Michigan set up new regulations for clinics where abortions are performed. Anti-abortion activists say they'll make clinics safer. But as NPR's Kathy Lohr reports, abortion providers say the rules are intended to shut clinics down.

KATHY LOHR, BYLINE: Virginia's GOP Governor Bob McDonnell quietly approved the clinic regulations, but he's long been a vocal supporter of regulating abortions and the facilities that perform them. Here's what the governor said at the beginning of the nearly two-year effort that basically requires clinics to be built like hospitals.

GOVERNOR BOB MCDONNELL: Obviously, I'm a pro-life governor. I believe that we ought to do everything we can to promote the sanctity of human life.

LOHR: In December, McDonnell issued a prepared statement saying the law will help ensure the safety of all patients. Twenty clinics in Virginia have to follow the new rules. In part, they say public hallways must be at least 5 feet wide, exam rooms must be at least 80 square feet, and there must be at least four parking spaces for each surgical room and additional staff spaces.

Julie Rikelman with the Center for Reproductive Rights says the law will force many clinics to rebuild or close.

JULIE RIKELMAN: These kinds of harsh, strict regulations are not applied in any other medical context. They're only applied to medical practices that also offer abortion services.

LOHR: Rikelman says the center is considering whether to file legal action in Virginia as the group did in Kansas where a court blocked that state's law that would have placed building regulations on existing clinics.

RIKELMAN: The types of services that these centers provide include family planning services, abortion services. They're the exact same type of medical services that you get from your regular primary care doctor, in his or her regular physician's office. And there's absolutely no reason for those services to have to be provided in a hospital-type setting.

LOHR: More of these laws are being passed across the country. In Michigan, about 30 clinics are affected by a law that, in part, calls for construction regulations on facilities that perform more than 120 abortions a year. In Pennsylvania, one clinic has stopped doing abortions after that state required clinics to be built like mini-surgical centers. Last year, Virginia caused an uproar by proposing the strictest ultrasound law in the country that would have required an invasive vaginal probe.

But the president of the Virginia Society for Human Life, Olivia Gans Turner, says the new clinic rules are necessary. She cites an infamous Philadelphia clinic run by Kermit Gosnell, which state officials called a house of horrors. Gosnell was charged with eight counts of murder after at least one woman and seven infants died in his office.

OLIVIA GANS TURNER: Are they all quite as bad as Gosnell? Perhaps not. But if one woman dies in a facility that could otherwise have been regulated and cared for in a way that provided some measure of protection, who is going to stand for justice for those women if it isn't the states and their responsibility under their Board of Health?

LOHR: Pennsylvania officials ignored numerous complaints about Gosnell. Abortion rights activists say his office was an aberration, that he clearly operated outside the law.

Elizabeth Nash with the Guttmacher Institute calls the clinic building codes a political maneuver.

ELIZABETH NASH: They're not about health and they're not about safety. It's a way to bypass a court case to overturn Roe v. Wade and simply eliminate access by regulating abortion providers out of business.

LOHR: Roe versus Wade is the decision that legalized abortion 40 years ago this month. In Virginia, even though the governor has signed the law, a two-month public comment period is just beginning. Still, that's unlikely to change any of the new clinic rules.

Kathy Lohr, NPR News.

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