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It's been snowy in Vermont this winter, which is great for ski resorts, and tough on the state's emergency services. In the past month, Vermont state police have had to help find 50 lost skiers. Vermont Public Radio's Nina Keck reports on the strain this is causing.

UNIDENTIFIED SNOWBOARDER: This is awesome.

NINA KECK, BYLINE: Snowboarders at Killington check out an expert run near the summit. These folks are not the troublemakers. No, this story is about other skiers and riders - the ones who go looking for fun in all the wrong places.

Bob Giolito is a former Killington ski patroller who's now on the state police.

BOB GIOLITO: It's almost moguled up. You see all the ski tracks - there's high volume of people coming through here.

KECK: Giolito is pointing to an unmarked trail into the woods that eventually, leads to a clearing. But it's not like you can stumble onto this. There's a bright-orange rope you have to duck under, and several big signs that say "Out of Bonds, No Skiing Beyond This Point." Despite all that, Giolito says an alarming number of ill-equipped skiers keep going.

GIOLITO: Now, if I'm looking out there, I'm like, wow, that looks like some powder; I'm going to ski that. So they're going to head downhill. And as they go down, the trees get closer, and tighter and tighter, and then, they're in a problem.

KECK: Because this part of the ridgeline drops off fast, and leads far away from any lifts. Within a few hours, these back-country wannabes are exhausted, cold, and in the dark.

Giolito and Vermont State Police Capt. Donald Patch believe more skier education is needed. But how best to provide that, remains unclear. In the meantime, Patch says the cost to taxpayers, for so many search and rescues, is troubling.

CAPT. DONALD PATCH: When the trooper is tied up on a lost skier case, that's time that they're not following up on their other investigations.

KECK: Vermont is one of a handful of states that allows billing for some rescues. But for a state that depends on skiing and tourism, it's controversial and for safety reasons, rarely used.

Neil Van Dyke heads Stowe Mountain Rescue, and is a past president of the Mountain Rescue Association.

NEIL VAN DYKE: As search and rescuers, we feel very strongly that there should never be any disincentive for somebody to call for help, when they need it.

KECK: He says there've been documented cases in Colorado where people in trouble have put off calling for help because they were afraid of getting billed. But not everyone agrees with that.

KEVIN JORDAN: When people get in trouble, they don't hesitate to call. They call immediately because they are in trouble.

KECK: Kevin Jordan helps run New Hampshire's search and rescue program, which frequently handles rescues in the White Mountains - notorious for severe weather. They've been less squeamish about billing when they believe those rescued are being reckless or negligent.While Jordan says the policy has stirred up debate, he doesn't think it's deterred anyone from seeking help.

JORDAN: What I did notice, is when we conduct the mission, as we're getting this person down, a conversation now is generated - am I going to get a bill? And that's the only difference I've seen. I've seen no effect to tourism.

KECK: But many people simply can't pay. He says they've collected only about two-thirds of the $83,000 they've billed in the last five years. And that's just a fraction of the roughly $1.5 million New Hampshire spent on all rescues during that time.

JORDAN: It's a very hot debate in this state because people are very strong feelings about it. But the problem is that on Monday, the bills have to be paid. And when we're not buying equipment, and we don't have a training budget, and we're sending up our guys above the tree line in January, in 60-below weather, we have a responsibility to ensure their safety. And so we're walking a dangerous tightrope.

KECK: It's an issue many states are struggling with. In Wyoming, a state lawmaker pointed out that demand for search and rescue there hasn't necessarily increased. But he says more funding is needed because those who seek help are taking bigger chances, and in more dangerous situations.

For NPR News, I'm Nina Keck in Chittenden, Vermont.

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