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RENEE MONTAGNE, HOST:

This is MORNING EDITION, from NPR News. I'm Renee Montagne.

STEVE INSKEEP, HOST:

And I'm Steve Inskeep. As the nation ponders how to stop the next mass shooting, the gun rights movement offers a simple formula; laid out famously last month, by NRA Executive Vice President Wayne LaPierre.

(SOUNDBITE OF ARCHIVED RECORDING)

WAYNE LAPIERRE: The only thing that stops a bad guy with a gun, is a good guy with a gun.

INSKEEP: NPR's Martin Kaste introduces us to one such good guy; a private citizen who drew his gun in defense of others, and paid a heavy price.

MARTIN KASTE, BYLINE: Dan McKown is a comedian. He used to do stand-up, and he has a performer's habit of always being just a little bit on.

DAN MCKOWN: Is that hand gesture referring to me, go ahead - or shut up, you're interrupting me?

(LAUGHTER)

KASTE: His jokey tone takes getting used to, especially as he tells the story of the day he locked eyes with a mass shooter.

MCKOWN: The first word that - honestly - went through my head was, bugger. And clearly, too much British TV.

KASTE: It was 2005, in the Tacoma Mall, Washington state. He'd been chatting with friends when gunshots rang out. Everybody hid, but McKown had a pistol. For years, he'd carried a legal, concealed weapon with the thought that someday, he'd protect others. Now, it seemed, that moment had come. Gun drawn, McKown scanned for the shooter. But then the gunshots stopped. Unsure what had happened, McKown tucked his pistol back under his coat - just as the shooter walked right in front of him.

MCKOWN: So anyway, I'm standing there like Napoleon Bonaparte, with his hand, you know, in his jacket. So I said, young man, I think you need to put your weapon down.

KASTE: And that gave the other guy just enough time to shoot him. The bullet hit McKown's spine, and he found himself struggling to aim his own gun.

MCKOWN: I prayed the most un-Christian prayer of my life - which was, God please let me shoot this guy before he kills somebody else. 'Cause I was sure I was dead. Then he hit me again, again. again. And he spun me like a pinwheel.

KASTE: So what did McKown do wrong? At the time, that was a hot question among concealed-carry advocates. Some said he should have stayed behind cover. Others said his mistake was drawing against someone who was already pointing a gun toward him.

(SOUNDBITE OF GUNSHOTS)

KASTE: At a shooting range in Bellevue, Washington, a company called InSights trains civilians for these active-shooter situations. Instructor John Holschen speculates that McKown may have been a victim of his own sense of fair play, especially when he gave that verbal warning.

JOHN HOLSCHEN: The right thing to do tactically, in that situation; legally, in that situation; and morally, in that situation; is end the shooter's ability to keep shooting. And that means: Apply lethal force now.

KASTE: InSights offers classes like tactical handgun, and advanced confrontation simulations. But most gun owners never get this kind of training. In fact, in some states - like Washington - a concealed-carry permit requires no training at all.

JIM PUGEL: Good intentions don't get you to the justifiable, and safe, end point.

KASTE: Assistant Chief Jim Pugel has 30 years on the Seattle Police Department. He doesn't oppose responsible gun ownership. But he says civilians need to understand what it takes to use a gun in public.

PUGEL: The ability to safely handle, and use a gun, in a lawful manner is a perishable skill. If you don't practice on a regular basis, psychologically, physiologically, you will likely not respond properly.

KASTE: But cops can also recognize the potential value of armed good guys, particularly in emergencies involving a madman.

MARK LOMAX: What you want to do is interrupt their thought process.

KASTE: Mark Lomax is executive director of the National Tactical Officers Association. He says in active-shooter situations, the old rule used to be to secure the location, and wait for SWAT.

LOMAX: Well, in Columbine they waited for like, 45 minutes. And in the meantime, numerous kids were shot and killed. So, post-Columbine, they looked at it and said, we cannot wait.

KASTE: Police now believe an early challenge, even an unsuccessful one - by cop or civilian - can rattle a mass shooter. It can push him to a different course of action. Which brings us back to Dan McKown, shot five times, lying on the floor of the Tacoma Mall.

MCKOWN: At the time, I thought I screwed up, and that I failed.

KASTE: But maybe he didn't because right after the confrontation, the shooter stopped spraying bullets. He ducked into a store and took hostages and eventually, gave himself up. No one was killed; seven wounded, though, and McKown's injuries were the worst. Today, he's in a wheelchair and lives with excruciating pain. But he says he doesn't sit around asking, why me?

MCKOWN: When people say, why me? well, in my case, I know the answer - I went after a guy with a gun.

KASTE: It's not a course of action he recommends for everybody. But McKown says it is a choice that he does not regret.

Martin Kaste, NPR News, Seattle.

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