ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
Well, now to another security challenge - Afghanistan. NATO troops are scheduled to leave the country by the end of next year and the international community has pledged $16 billion to support Afghan security forces after that. The money would cover the cost of troops and equipment, but there's debate over what equipment the Afghans should have - weapons for conventional warfare or equipment suitable to counter-insurgency? NPR's Sean Carberry sent this story.
SEAN CARBERRY, BYLINE: I'm here at the Armor Branch School, which is an Afghan army training compound that sits at the foot of giant snow-covered mountains on the outskirts of Kabul. And in front of me is a kid's dream. It's a massive sandbox and in it are little wooden army trucks and blocks making small villages. And the soldiers here are undergoing training on how to maneuver convoys of vehicles safely over terrain and how to approach villages to conduct operations.
COLONEL ABDUL QUDOS GHANI: (Speaking foreign language)
CARBERRY: Colonel Abdul Qudos Ghani is the commander of the three-year-old school where NATO advisers provide much of the training.
GHANI: (Through translator) We can fight the insurgents inside Afghanistan with the weapons we have, but to control our borders we should have heavy weapons.
CARBERRY: Like artillery, jets and tanks. His sentiments are echoed by many other Afghan commanders and defense officials. When President Hamid Karzai went to Washington last month, he brought a wish list of military hardware he wanted from the U.S.
SHUKRIA BARAKZAI: The list has disappeared in the Pentagon, or it's gone to one of the shelves of the White House.
CARBERRY: Shukria Barakzai is a member of the defense committee of the Afghan parliament. She says she was disappointed by the results of the talks in Washington. She says it's essential for Afghanistan to build up a conventional military to deter hostile neighbors.
BARAKZAI: If we don't have it at all, it will be a big threat, not only for Afghanistan, I think globally.
CARBERRY: But the U.S. and NATO don't share this view.
BRIGADIER GENERAL ADAM FINDLAY: We are building the INSF to fight a counterinsurgency war in our own image.
CARBERRY: Brigadier General Adam Findlay is deputy to the deputy chief of staff for NATO operations in Afghanistan. He says that the Afghans are getting ahead of themselves in looking for more advanced and conventional hardware.
STEPHEN BIDDLE: Our interests and the Afghan government's interests are imperfectly aligned.
SEAN BARBEERY, BYLINE: Afghanistan expert Stephen Biddle says that one reason is that President Karzai wants heavy weaponry to win more loyalty from his military commanders.
BIDDLE: It's not uncommon for armies and air forces in the developing world to buy equipment for prestige purposes, that when you look at the objective nature of the threats they face is a poor fit.
CARBERRY: He and others argue this is what's missing right now - an objective analysis.
ATIQULLAH BARYALAI: We do not have in our military sector any clear strategy and we do not have any clear strategy on the political level.
CARBERRY: Atiqullah Baryalai is a former Afghan deputy defense minister.
BARYALAI: The real threat in front of Afghanistan is going to be insurgency and the radicalism in the region.
CARBERRY: And so he says for the next decade or so, Afghanistan should develop a national security strategy based around that threat. And that means Afghanistan needs mobile and less expensive weaponry - helicopters, light artillery, armored personnel carriers. Stephen Biddle agrees.
BIDDLE: If we're going to be paying the bills, I think it's reasonable to ask that the military we're building pursue interests the United States has in the region.
CARBERRY: Biddle and Baryalai say that involves one thing the Obama administration has struggled to do - make clear to Karzai America's interests in the region. Sean Carberry, NPR News, Kabul.