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AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:

Epic water battles are the stuff of history and legend, especially in the American West. And we're going to hear about one now: a conflict between Nebraska and Kansas. Kansas says Nebraska uses too much water from the Republican River and there's not enough left for Kansas farmers. Kansas has asked the Supreme Court to help resolve the issue. And as Grant Gerlock of NET News in Nebraska reports, the ongoing drought makes this legal case all the more pressing.

GRANT GERLOCK, BYLINE: Let's start our story in Clifton, Kansas, on the short end of the river, where farmer Mark Taddiken is worried about having a short supply of water. Taddiken wears heavy canvas overalls on a cold, gray morning as he stands in his field with black cattle chewing yellow corn stalks. They're watching Taddiken measure the charge of the electric fence that keeps them from roaming away.

MARK TADDIKEN: See, that's putting out seven amps. That's a hot fence.

GERLOCK: Like the nearby Republican River, the fence isn't worth much if there's no current. Three-quarters of Taddiken's farmland in North Central Kansas is irrigated with center pivots: tall sprinkler systems that irrigate in circles in fields of corn and soybeans. If the river stays low, like it is now, Kansas law limits Taddiken to a third of his normal irrigation plan, limiting what he can grow. He estimates he could lose 500 dollars per acre from reduced yields.

TADDIKEN: We're standing out here under this pivot right now that covers 120 acres. That restriction on that one well alone would be around $60,000.

GERLOCK: Multiply Taddiken's loss up and down the river and you can see how just how important water is here. Irrigated fields raise more valuable crops. Local businesses sell more seed and fertilizer. The price of land goes up. Take water away, and that's all reversed. Kansas officials claim farmers upstream in Nebraska are pumping too much river water, leaving less for farmers like Taddiken.

David Aiken studies water policy at the University of Nebraska Lincoln. He says Nebraska did indeed use more than its share of water during a period of drought in the mid-2000s.

DAVID AIKEN: In the past, Kansas has not gotten water that it was entitled to in these dry years, and that's one of the reasons that Kansas and Nebraska are back in court.

GERLOCK: The question for the Supreme Court is how to keep thirsty Nebraska farmers in check. Kansas wants the court to order Nebraska to ban irrigation on thousands of acres of farmland. While On the Kansas side of the border that may sound reasonable, in Nebraska, it's viewed as Draconian.

JASPER FANNING: Just shut it down. It doesn't matter. That's the easiest solution to implement, but it's not the wisest solution or the best solution for us to implement.

GERLOCK: Jasper Fanning is manager of the Upper Republican Natural Resources District in southwestern Nebraska. He says Nebraska will make sure Kansas gets its share of Republican River water. Farmers in his area plan to adopt new irrigation limits. They've also built a $12 million pipeline that they say will add water to the river from an underground aquifer. Following the state's driest year on record, Nebraska water expert David Aiken wonders if those changes will be enough.

AIKEN: This year will be the test to see whether those plans are going to be enough to keep us legal or not.

GERLOCK: But Nebraska is already behind. Harlan County Lake, the state's main reservoir, dropped 10 feet over the summer and it never recovered. The Supreme Court appointed a special master to review the states' arguments in this water war and is awaiting that report. Whatever the decision, it appears to be the continuing drought that's pushing it forward. For NPR News, I'm Grant Gerlock.

CORNISH: That story came to us from Harvest Public Media, a public radio reporting project that focuses on agriculture and food production issues.

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