JACKI LYDEN, HOST:
Here's a statistic that caught our eyes. In the last 10 years, the number of mosques in the United States jumped 74 percent. Today, there are more than 2,100 American mosques, and with that growth comes this challenge: There aren't enough imams or spiritual leaders to go around. NPR's John Burnett reports.
JOHN BURNETT, BYLINE: The Mid-Cities mosque in Colleyville, Texas, has two modest minarets that distinguish it as a sacred building here in the sedate suburb between Fort Worth and Dallas. It's trimmed in green lights, the color of Islam. A DFW Muslim Yellow Pages sits in a rack outside the doors.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Chanting in foreign language)
BURNETT: Inside, Maghreb prayers after sunset are commencing. A husky young imam dressed in a sand-colored tunic closes his eyes and leans into a microphone.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Chanting) Allah.
BURNETT: A dozen men stand barefoot, elbow to elbow, on a green carpet in quietude. The 200 mostly Pakistani-American members of this small Texas mosque are lucky to have a full-time, American-born imam. There's an acute imam shortage in America, the result of supply and demand, says Nouman Ali Khan. He heads an Arab language institute in Dallas that educates future imams.
NOUMAN ALI KHAN: I've had the opportunity to travel to maybe 150 mosques across the country. And the vast majority of them, actually, did not have a full-time imam. And the ones that did are very happy to have them and the ones that didn't are constantly asking me when I go for a seminar, hey, so you know anybody?
BURNETT: Separated by two oceans from the rest of Islam, he says American Muslims must find their own way, must invent their own traditions. In Islamic countries, mosques and imams are supported by the state. Here in America, they are private, just like any church. Moreover, they are likely to serve as religious and community centers for their ethnically distinct congregations.
Indeed, American mosques are filled with Muslims from many different countries, and increasingly, they're the spiritual home of native-born Muslims whose identities are completely American. Some young Muslims feel alienated from the mosque and from religious culture altogether. So U.S. mosques not only need imams trained in classical Islam, but who possess good English skills and a thorough understanding of American culture. Again, Nouman Ali Khan.
KHAN: Because you may have a scholarly religious figure that can speak to the older congregation, but he's not able to connect as well with the youth. And in a lot of the interviews, it's even sort of a primary concern how well can you connect with the young in our community.
BURNETT: The Islamic Association of Mid-Cities went without an imam for 15 months before it finally chose Yahya Jaekoma. He's a cherubic 23-year-old of Thai and Afghan descent who was born in San Diego.
YAHYA JAEKOMA: I was a sponsored skater at the age of 10, so, you know, some basic...
BURNETT: You were a skateboarder?
JAEKOMA: I was a skater, yes. I was a sponsored skater. And after breaking my arm, my grandmother told me that, you know, that I have to put it off. And so she sent me to a madrassa, which is an institute to study the Quran, at the age of 14.
BURNETT: By the time he was 18, Jaekoma had memorized the entire Quran and dedicated his life to religious study. But his time as a hip-hop skateboarder gives him a unique voice for the youth in his mosque.
JAEKOMA: I tell them my life story. I tell them where I came from. I tell them what I've done.
BURNETT: The youth group at the Mid-Cities mosque includes Sijil Patel, a 16-year-old Pakistani-American who is thoroughly modern with Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, crazy-colored sneakers and a headscarf.
SIJIL PATEL: By having someone that was born here, it's easier to relate to them and it's easier for them to understand our view on what we're dealing with and, like, the difficulties we have with our faith in, like, such a modern environment.
BURNETT: Things like dating, sex, drugs, alcohol and profanity.
PATEL: We've been strictly taught in Islam that vulgar language is not allowed. And so I try my best to, like, not engage in that type of thing, and I told my friends too.
BURNETT: A recent survey by the Islamic Society of North America reports that only 44 percent of American imams are salaried and full time. The rest are volunteer religious leaders. Four out of five imams here were born and educated outside the United States, mostly in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and India. Jihad Turk is president of the Bayan Claremont Islamic graduate school in Southern California.
JIHAD TURK: I can count the number of institutions that prepare imams in the United States on three fingers.
BURNETT: Turk estimates that his institution, Hartford Seminary in Connecticut and Zaytuna College in the San Francisco Bay Area, will collectively graduate fewer than 30 Quranic scholars this year. This handful of newly minted American imams will have no trouble at all finding work. John Burnett, NPR News.