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Latin America's biggest economy is only getting bigger. Brazil needs more and more electrical power for its growing cities and industries. Energy planners have embarked on a construction boom, starting to build dozens of hydroelectric dams in the Amazon.

As we hear from NPR's Juan Forero, that's generating plenty of opposition.

JUAN FORERO, BYLINE: Here in the jungles of far western Brazil, workers drill and hammer on one end of the giant Jirau hydroelectric dam, a massive complex that, when completed, will stretch 5 miles across the Madeira River. It takes a few minutes to drive over an earthen berm to reach the powerhouses where workers prepare to install giant turbines.

Everything about this dam in Rondonia state is in supersized scale. It'll hold enough concrete to build 47 towers the size of the Empire State Building, says Jose Gomes, a civil engineer who's the institutional director for Jirau.

JOSE GOMES: (Foreign language spoken)

FORERO: This will be the third largest dam in Brazil, Gomes says, and the 14th biggest in the world. He adds that no other dam will have as many turbines, 50 of them, each big enough to accommodate a locomotive.

All of this - from the huge steel reinforcements to the spillways - to produce electricity for Brazil's largest city, Sao Paulo. That's more than 1,400 miles away from the power source, the mighty Madeira, the largest tributary of the Amazon.

(SOUNDBITE OF RUSHING WATER)

FORERO: But this dam is just one of many that will be built over the next decade. The environmental group International Rivers, which tracks Brazil's dam building plans, says 168 will go up in the Amazon alone. Many will be small to regulate water flow or to power a single industrial project. The Energy Ministry lists 34 sizable dams by 2021. The goal is to harness some of the world's greatest rivers.

Paulo Domingues, director of energy planning for the Energy Ministry, says that'll permit Brazil to jack up its electrical generation capacity by 50 percent.

PAULO DOMINGUES: (Foreign language spoken)

FORERO: Only hydroelectric dams can keep up with the annual increase in demand for electricity, says Domingues. The cost of running thermal-electric, gas or oil-fired plants is too high, Domingues says.

But hydro power in the world's biggest and most biodiverse forest has fueled criticism. The Amazon absorbs much of the world's carbon emissions. It regulates the climate and produces a fifth of the world's freshwater. Its rivers are key in all of that.

Indigenous groups who live alongside rivers say the dams will unalterably change their way of life. Christian Poirier, who works with the group Amazon Watch, said the government has swept aside such criticism while seeking economic growth at all costs.

CHRISTIAN POIRIER: It's done so in a way that ignores human rights, ignores the letter of the law, ignores its own legislation and international conventions.

FORERO: Here at Jirau, those impacted by the dam are fishermen and hunters. They'd lived a simple life on the Madeira, then the dam started to up.

JEFERSON CAMPOS: (Foreign language spoken)

FORERO: Jeferson Campos says now there's no more fishing, no hunting, no gathering of wild fruits. Now, his family's home is underwater.

Jose Gomes, Jirau's institutional director, counters that families like Campos' were given new homes in a new town, Nova Mutu. Featuring 1,600 new houses, it was built from scratch by the consortium that's installing Jirau. He also says the dam has fish ladders so fish can migrate upstream. And he says that the flooding created by the dam has been relatively small by the standards of the dams of the past.

The fact is that now the construction is proceeding fast with 18,000 workers toiling to get the dam online by 2015.

UNIDENTIFIED MAN: (Foreign language spoken)

FORERO: On a recent day, as some workers put up steel reinforcements, others worked to unhinge a cable that had become stuck in a spillway filled with water. Divers were sent down.

They kept in touch with radio operators on the surface. Jose Gomes watched it all closely and remarked on the bigger goal here.

GOMES: (Foreign language spoken)

FORERO: For Brazil to keep up with demand, he said, two giant dams, just like this one, must go up every year.

Juan Forero, NPR News.

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