MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:
Nearly half of all Native American tribes get some of their revenue from casinos and other kinds of gaming. For most, it's their largest source of income. But growing threats to that revenue are forcing many tribes to look for other investment opportunities.
Minnesota Public Radio's Conrad Wilson reports on one group of Native Americans that's buying up hotels.
(SOUNDBITE OF SLOT MACHINE MUSIC)
CONRAD WILSON, BYLINE: More than 1,800 slot machines create an orchestral blur of electronic entertainment here at Grand Casino Mille Lacs.
At the moment, it's not too crowded. One nearby woman's even playing two slot machines at the same time. This casino is one of two owned by the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe in central Minnesota. Over the last two decades, they've helped bring wealth and a return to self-sufficiency for this once impoverished Indian band that's planning to grow its prosperity through a new business venture.
UNIDENTIFIED MAN: Thank you for calling the DoubleTree by Hilton, St. Paul downtown. Please listen carefully to the following options.
WILSON: Last month, the Mille Lacs Band announced plans to purchase two hotels in downtown St. Paul. Once the deal is finalized, the band will become the single largest hotel operator in the city. The deal represents a big business shift for the band. Joe Nayquonabe is the commissioner of corporate affairs. He heads up the business side and turns those profits over to the tribal government.
JOE NAYQUONABE: We'd love to see the Corporate Commission become a one-billion dollar company someday.
WILSON: Nayquonabe says they'd like to own a hotel in every major U.S. market. By putting the casino's profits into a new hotel venture, he says, the band will become more economically secure.
NAYQUONABE: What Indian gaming has done for Indian tribes is it's helped us develop basic infrastructure for our tribal members. So when you look around out here at the community, we have clinics, we have a government center, we have schools, we have community centers. You know, now we're starting to think about how do we improve the quality of life even more.
WILSON: Like the Mille Lacs Band here in Minnesota, tribes around the country are increasingly looking for ways to grow revenues. In Nebraska, the Winnebago tribe owns more than two dozen businesses that operate in several states and overseas through a holding company called Ho-Chunk Inc. Companies include everything from construction firms to a marketing and advertising company. In 2011, Ho-Chunk Inc. reported revenue topping a quarter-billion dollars.
In Wisconsin, Kevin Allis chairs the Potawatomi Business Development Corp., a $60 million tribal holding company started in 2003 with profits from the tribe's downtown Milwaukee casino.
KEVIN ALLIS: We may occasionally be funded from some of the profits that come from the gaming facility. We're tasked with the obligation and responsibility to, you know, invest it in a wise manner to build the asset base of the tribe and also to insulate the tribe from any future decline in gaming dollars or something that would impact that industry.
WILSON: Allis says the company invests in businesses all over the county and the new mantra is diversify.
ALLIS: You can't rely on one thing. You know, it's never a safe bet to put all of your eggs in one basket. It's just not smart.
WILSON: For many tribes, it's casinos that have made just about any economic development possible, but it's a revenue source that's threatened.
ANTON TREUER: It's the growing presence of non-tribal gaming.
WILSON: Anton Treuer is the executive director of the Indian Resource Center at Bemidji State University. Treuer cites Minnesota lawmakers, who last year authorized a form of electronic gambling to help pay for its share of the new Vikings football stadium. Gambling profits seem irresistible to politicians and Treuer expects state governments to continue to seek them out to augment tax revenues.
TREUER: It becomes a little easier for both parties to kind of do an end-around on the tribal monopoly on gaming than it is to either make really hard cuts or raise taxes.
WILSON: Savvy tribal leaders say diversification is about preparing for whatever competition heads their way, so their economic future isn't something left to chance. For NPR News, I'm Conrad Wilson.