MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Melissa Block. There's a new sense of urgency in cities on the East Coast after Hurricane Sandy. Scientists can't predict when the next big storm will come, but they can say that a warmer climate is likely to make Atlantic storms bigger and increase flooding. The Boston area is one urban center that's trying to prepare and NPR's Christopher Joyce went there to find out what they're doing.

CHRISTOPHER JOYCE, BYLINE: From Kerry Emanuel's sixth floor office at MIT, you can look down at the snow-covered Charles River as it snakes through Boston down to the harbor. It's a beautiful city where three rivers meet the Atlantic, except a lot of that water wants to get into the city and here's why. First, the Atlantic is warming. Emanuel says that puts more water vapor up into the air.

KERRY EMANUEL: That means that a given hurricane is likely to rain much more in the future than it does today. That's a big deal because a lot of the deaths and injuries and loss of property and so forth in these storms come from fresh water flooding produced by rain.

JOYCE: Then there's sea level. Emanuel, an atmospheric scientist, says warming climate is likely to change wind patterns.

EMANUEL: And those wind patterns can make a difference locally to how high the sea level it is. So, for example, sea levels forecast arrives faster along the U.S. East Coast than it does globally.

JOYCE: So you get flooding rivers and a surging ocean that meet in Boston Harbor.

EMANUEL: This is something that we're worried about. You're producing more water in the rivers, so the water, when it gets down to the sea doesn't have any place to go because sea level is elevated.

JOYCE: Boston Harbor's a busy place. Buildings come right down to the waterfront. You've got high-rises, as well as 19th and even 18th century buildings of brick right up to the edge of the water, though. There's not really much room between the ends of the building and where the water is. That's made Boston Harbor a popular place for business as well as tourism.

Giant office buildings, chic restaurants, the Boston Tea Party Museum where they reenact 18th century history and throw more tea into the harbor just for fun. Boston has several waterfront neighborhoods like this and buildings dating back centuries. Vivian Lee(ph) lives in one.

VIVIAN LEE: Many of them are very solidly build, but the mechanicals and boilers and such are in the basement level and that will be the problem.

JOYCE: Mechanicals meaning electric switches, water pumps, fuel tanks. Lee is trying to change that. She runs the Boston Harbor Association. This month, the group issued a study of what future storms could do to Boston. Sandy just grazed Boston, but the study shows that if a storm like Sandy hit Boston directly, it would flood 6.6 percent of the city. If sea levels go up by 2 and a half feet, as many scientists say they could by 2100, it would flood 30 percent of the city.

Lee recalls the response to the study she got from the owners of Boston's Harbor Towers high-rises.

LEE: If your projections are correct, sea level rise could knock out the boilers for two of the largest residential towers in Boston. That's not going to be good for those residents.

JOYCE: The Association's study advises property owners to identify low-lying doors or vent openings, underground garages, basement power equipment and figure out how to protect them from flooding. That will cost a lot, but Lee expects people to pay it rather than leaving.

LEE: The issue of retreating right now is not palatable for political reasons and I, frankly, think a lot of the residents don't want to move. You know, you see, particularly a lot of older people, saying this is where I've lived all my life.

JOYCE: The city government, meantime, has issued a questionnaire to anyone proposing to build in Boston. Brian Swett is head of environment and energy for the city.

BRIAN SWETT: Now, we're asking buildings, how are you preparing for the realities of sea level rise, of increase of magnitude of storm water, while making sure that you have in your emergency preparedness plans water-tightening your buildings? So how do you deal with entrances to garages or to lobbies, I mean, subway entrance platforms?

JOYCE: As Boston plug zones expand, it will cost more to build there. Swett, who worked in real estate development prior to city hall, says it should. He believes builders are willing to pay the price.

SWETT: I'm not saying at all that we retreat from the waterfront, but it is inherently more expensive. It's also inherently more valuable.

JOYCE: But no matter how well property owners prepare, they could still lose it all as climate changes. One reason many are willing to stomach that risk is that governments may bail them out. Swett and Vivian Lee and MIT's Kerry Emanuel all agree that state and federal flood insurance and disaster relief hide the true risk of coastal development.

Emanuel says it's a taxpayer subsidy for risky behavior.

EMANUEL: It's as though your health provider would give you a big break on your premium if you could prove to them that you smoke three packs a day. It's that crazy.

JOYCE: Emanuel says it will stay crazy until people get tired of paying the bill for more Sandys. Christopher Joyce, NPR News.

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