LINDA WERTHEIMER, HOST:
In three years, the federal government is expected to open the skies above us for the civilian use of drones. To get ready for that, the federal aviation administration will set up six drone test sites around the country. There's expected to be stiff competition to land one of those sites, driven by an expectation that having one site will mean thousands of new jobs. Ryan Delaney of member station WRVO reports on efforts in Upstate New York to cash in on the technology.
RYAN DELANEY, BYLINE: Peter Singer, a fellow at the Brookings Institution, says right now, drone technology is where the computer was in 1980 - not a whole lot of functions, and mainly used by the military. But then computers got smaller, and we figured out a whole bunch of uses for them. That's what's happening now with drones. To prepare for the onset of drones flying over our homes, Singer says Congress tapped the Federal Aviation Administration to come up with regulations.
PETER SINGER: The airspace, under the current schedule, opens up 2015. And so we will see one of the most fundamental shifts in who and how you can use the airspace above us.
DELANEY: The FAA estimates there could be as many as 10,000 drones flying over U.S. skies by the end of the decade, doing everything from cargo delivery to law enforcement to news gathering. How those drones communicate with air traffic control, airplanes and other drones, as well as rules on when and where they can fly, still need to be figured out. That's where the six test sites come in.
A bunch of universities and defense contractors in Upstate New York and in Massachusetts teamed up last year to try and get one. Industry groups estimate the drone business will create tens of thousands of new jobs in engineering, and then manufacturing. So the selling point to getting a test site is economic.
MAJOR GENERAL BOB KNAUFF: There's an awful lot of "Field of Dreams": If you build it, they will come.
DELANEY: Retired Air Force Major General Bob Knauff leads the coalition here. The hope is landing a test site could turn the region into the Silicon Valley of drones.
KNAUFF: If you have one place or two places or three places in the country where they can do all of the testing, you would expect the industry to grow around that.
DELANEY: Knauff estimates the region will have to beat out at least two dozen other sites. Congressional lobbying may help with that. He says Upstate New York also has something unique to offer: tons of military airspace over the Adirondack Mountains, which already hosts training flights for Air Force drones.
KNAUFF: That's the crown jewel. That's what makes us distinctive compared to some of the other places that maybe have some good industry or good academia, but they don't have that access to airspace. We do.
(SOUNDBITE OF BEEPING, DRONE ENGINE)
DELANEY: A test site could bring more business to companies like Propulsive Wing, already here working on drones.
JOE KUMMER: Hey, Doug, this one works really well. I mean, I had the thing hovering for...
DELANEY: Joe Kummer is demonstrating a prototype he's been working on for six years. It's looks like a three-foot glider with its wings chopped off.
KUMMER: Yeah, this - that one works awesome.
DELANEY: Kummer is less bullish about the economic prospects of a test site. But he does admit it could provide partnership opportunities for his small company.
KUMMER: We freely admit we're pretty good at a couple of things: composite design and aerodynamics. What we don't have, because we're not a big company, is all the other stuff.
DELANEY: The possible uses and economic potential for drones may be clear, but the other big issue surrounding them - privacy - is less so. Singer, the drone expert at Brookings, says that while the FAA is equipped to handle the safety aspects of drones, it can't deal with privacy.
SINGER: This is not just something that the FAA, which is designed to focus on air safety, on airspace management, it's not in their space to handle. And they would be the one first to say, this is - you know, we can't do this alone.
DELANEY: Those privacy issues have already caused the FAA to delay the test site program. Congress is just beginning to talk about privacy legislation. And nearly two dozen states are considering bills limiting police use of drones. For NPR News, I'm Ryan Delaney in Upstate New York.