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MELISSA BLOCK, HOST:

From NPR News, this is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED. I'm Melissa Block.

AUDIE CORNISH, HOST:

And I'm Audie Cornish. We've been hearing a lot about what could happen if automatic spending cuts kick in this Friday. Every state would lose federal aid and a wide variety of government programs could be limited or shut down. Now to how the sequester could affect public schools. Here's NPR's Claudio Sanchez.

CLAUDIO SANCHEZ, BYLINE: First, one bit of good news. Because most federal aid to schools is forward-funded, the cuts triggered by sequestration would not hit classrooms until September, at the earliest. But once they do hit, federal funding for education in some places will drop considerably.

ED MASSEY: Between 1.1 and $1.3 million. What that translates to in our district is the loss of approximately 15 teachers.

SANCHEZ: Ed Massey is the school board chair in Boone County, Kentucky. He says laying off teachers is his biggest worry, but his district could also lose reading coaches, after-school programs, teacher training and vocational education.

MASSEY: This is just another slap in the face to the American public. And so, yes, I'm angry. I'm angry because I believe the politicians have been irresponsible.

SANCHEZ: That sentiment seems widespread. For Tina Mannarino, head of early childhood education and Head Start in New Haven, Connecticut, it's the uncertainty that's maddening. No one really knows what's going to happen after March 1st.

TINA MANNARINO: We don't know when the cuts take effect, so we have a lot of questions.

SANCHEZ: Mannarino says she's heard that Connecticut may have to cut 700 children from Head Start programs across the state, but she's not sure she can cut any kids from her program.

MANNARINO: Because under our current contract with the government, we are supposed to be serving a certain number of children. And if we fall below that number, there is a penalty. And I think it's frustrating, and it makes people feel powerless and angry.

SANCHEZ: The Obama administration has tried to harness that anger and direct it at congressional Republicans. Here's Education Secretary Arne Duncan last weekend on CBS's "Face the Nation."

ARNE DUNCAN: We don't have any ability with dumb cuts like this to figure out what the right thing to do is. It just means a lot more children will not get the kinds of services and opportunities they need, and as many as 40,000 teachers could lose their jobs.

SANCHEZ: Duncan said high-poverty schools could lose $725 million in Title I funds; special education would lose 600 million; work-study programs on college campuses, 49 million, which would eliminate 33,000 students from the program.

MIKE PETRILLI: On the whole, when you look at it nationally, these are not major cuts.

SANCHEZ: That's Mike Petrilli of the Thomas B. Fordham Institute, a conservative think tank in Washington. He says Duncan and the Obama administration are exaggerating the impact sequestration would have on education.

PETRILLI: In most places, these cuts are going to be relatively minor and school districts are going to be able to handle it quite well. The places that are going to get hit the hardest are the ones that have high concentrations of poor kids and are in states that are not very generous in terms of state dollars, so they really do rely quite a bit on the federal funding.

SANCHEZ: Then, there's school systems that receive impact aid, for example. These districts cannot rely on local property taxes to fund schools because they're on federal government land or near big military bases, like Killeen, Texas. Half of the 42,000 students there have at least one parent serving at Fort Hood.

Dr. Robert Muller, the school superintendent, says he could lose as much as $4.6 million in impact aid.

ROBERT MULLER: Well, we don't know. We're not sure if it's 2.6 or 4.6.

SANCHEZ: On Friday, Muller says he'll have to start thinking about the 55 to 57 teachers he may have to let go. Claudio Sanchez, NPR News.

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